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Higgs Boson : The God Particle



In 2012 at CERN laboratory, scientist found a new particle with mass of 125 GeV which was later confirmed to be the ‘Higgs Boson ‘ with more precise measurement. Before understanding what is higgs boson?, let us know how scientist at CERN detected the presence of Higgs Boson.

A particle like higgs boson cannot be found in nature even if it is produced at some point we couldn’t detect it due to its nearly zero life time. So the only way remains to check the presence of higgs boson is to produced in lab. In particle collision we take two light weight particles and accelerate them to nearly speed of light that generates kinetic energy and later collide them at collision point which create a massive particle. At Large hadron collider (LHC) scientist accelerate two beam of protons in a vaccum pipe surrounded by magnets moving in opposite direction generating kinetic energy, now these protons are smashed together an the sum of energy of both beams is now available for the creation of mass. This is how scientist produced new particle.

Above image is a particle detector that can detect electrons, muons and various other but cannot detect Higgs Boson, this is because higgs boson doesn’t exist for long and never gets a chance to reach the detector. So how do we know that higgs boson was produced ?. The only method remains here is through its decay. Higgs boson decays into different particles like photons, muons, electrons etc. At LHC scientist focused on higgs decay into two photon, these two photon are what the particle detector will measure. Now if we consider a stationary higgs boson decaying into two photon, according to Einstein’s energy mass equation the mass of higgs would be equal to sum of energy of two photons and mc² ( m=mass of photon, c= speed of light), as we know mass of photons is zero, the mass of higgs would be the sum energy of two photons. As we have mentioned that higgs it at rest this method wont work because there is always some momentum associated with higgs in the detector. This problem can be tackled by taking momentum of photons into consideration in the frame of reference of detector. Hence, the general formula would be E²=(mc²)² +(pc)² . The second problem is there are lot of photons produced in the detector. Which leads to two possibilities,

1) The photons are coming from higgs boson decay and the mass would be the mass of higgs.
2) The photons are not coming from higgs decay and the mass of would be a random number.

To reduce this error scientist needed to perform the experiments many times and calculate the mass after each experiment. After plotting the graph of the invariant mass of two photon system they found a peak rising at 125 GeV mass of two photon system. The peak that showed up defines the presence of higgs boson. If there was no higgs boson the graph must have been curve. Below graph is the invariant mass of two photon system.

This is how higgs boson was discovered. In above graph the peak contains about 500 photon pair at 125 GeV. Hence, out of 150 thousand pairs of photon only 500 made us sure about the presence of higgs boson.

Now let us know what exactly is higgs boson and does it give mass to a particle?. Higgs Boson is an elementary particle that as a special stand in the standard model. It has mass of 125 GeV and is a result of slight excitation in the higgs field. It has no charge, no spin and can decay into various other lighter particle. Higgs boson doesn’t give mass to particles but presence of higgs boson confirms the presence of higgs field, higgs field is everywhere filling whole universe around us, when particle move through higgs field they gain mass by interacting with it. Physicist also suggests that due to higgs bosons interaction with mass, may be higgs boson could transform or decay into dark matter particle.



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Content writer salary and job description!



Nowadays content writing is a good profession. You can make a lot of money from content writing. There is a huge demand in content writing and It is slowly becoming a popular career option as the writing industry is expanding. Content writer salary differs with the job profile.

It ranges from 10k-12k per month for beginners and goes from 20k-30k for experienced.

To develop a career in content writing one must have good language skills, grammar, and vocabulary. if you are thinking about freelance writers who are in demand, the answer is yes. Career as content writer is India is very profitable, especially at this point in time where use of internet is at it’s peak and more businesses are turning online everyday. The basic skills required for content developers need a Bachelor’s degree in journalism or communication and a minimum of 2-3 years of experience in web-related marketing and development.
Excellent communications, writing skills, and listening skills , are needed much of educational qualification to become a qualified content writer, you can get the job of a content writer by learning content writing from a short course on content writing that is completely online or offline provided by the best institute with placements.

Career in content writing requires a good set of skills, such as:

Search Engine Optimization
Keyword Research
Keyword Density, Competitive Analysis

Jobs for Content Writers:

  • Communications leader. There are various types of corporate communications and public views every company requires a blend of writing and marketing skills.
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content writing is the greatest profession that not only enhances skills but also gives the right guidance to many of them where they can start their careers.

The career as content writer can better be described through these roles:

• SEO Writer

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• Sketch and Script WriterCareer in content writing.

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Career in artificial intelligence.



Career in artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI): IT is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. If you consider career in artificial intelligence in India, there are handful of big companies that are currently into it. Artificial Intelligence is a revolutionary technology that’s changing the world by empowering industries with smart solutions.
Artificial intelligence jobs gives many opportunities for the technology and it’s development , you can explore technology and science in artificial intelligence……
In artificial intelligence there are many jobs option and career growth..
• Data Mining Analyst
• Machine Learning Researcher
• Working in the Military
• Robotics Programmer
• Video Game Programmer
• Software Engineer

• Big Data Engineer
• · Business Intelligence Developer
• · Data Scientist
• · Machine Learning Engineer
• · Research Scientist
• · AI Data Analyst
• · Product Manager
• · AI Engineer
Scope of artificial intelligence in different areas

  1. In the field of education
    Educational software can be adapted to student needs
    Artificial intelligence can automate basic activities in education, like grading

Students could get additional support from AI tutors
AI-driven programs can give students and educators helpful feedback
Data powered by AI can change how schools find, teach, and support students.

Institute which offers Artificial Intelligence

  1. Tech stack
  2. IIT
  3. Chandigarh University
  4. Digitech Vidya
  5. National Institute of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in the functioning of the world around us and continues to advance and improve the quality of life in multiple industrial environments. Anyone seeking a career in this field and willing to strive for a high level of education will be quickly accepted in this constantly growing, high-paying industry.

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