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Higgs Boson : The God Particle

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In 2012 at CERN laboratory, scientist found a new particle with mass of 125 GeV which was later confirmed to be the ‘Higgs Boson ‘ with more precise measurement. Before understanding what is higgs boson?, let us know how scientist at CERN detected the presence of Higgs Boson.

A particle like higgs boson cannot be found in nature even if it is produced at some point we couldn’t detect it due to its nearly zero life time. So the only way remains to check the presence of higgs boson is to produced in lab. In particle collision we take two light weight particles and accelerate them to nearly speed of light that generates kinetic energy and later collide them at collision point which create a massive particle. At Large hadron collider (LHC) scientist accelerate two beam of protons in a vaccum pipe surrounded by magnets moving in opposite direction generating kinetic energy, now these protons are smashed together an the sum of energy of both beams is now available for the creation of mass. This is how scientist produced new particle.

Above image is a particle detector that can detect electrons, muons and various other but cannot detect Higgs Boson, this is because higgs boson doesn’t exist for long and never gets a chance to reach the detector. So how do we know that higgs boson was produced ?. The only method remains here is through its decay. Higgs boson decays into different particles like photons, muons, electrons etc. At LHC scientist focused on higgs decay into two photon, these two photon are what the particle detector will measure. Now if we consider a stationary higgs boson decaying into two photon, according to Einstein’s energy mass equation the mass of higgs would be equal to sum of energy of two photons and mc² ( m=mass of photon, c= speed of light), as we know mass of photons is zero, the mass of higgs would be the sum energy of two photons. As we have mentioned that higgs it at rest this method wont work because there is always some momentum associated with higgs in the detector. This problem can be tackled by taking momentum of photons into consideration in the frame of reference of detector. Hence, the general formula would be E²=(mc²)² +(pc)² . The second problem is there are lot of photons produced in the detector. Which leads to two possibilities,

1) The photons are coming from higgs boson decay and the mass would be the mass of higgs.
2) The photons are not coming from higgs decay and the mass of would be a random number.

To reduce this error scientist needed to perform the experiments many times and calculate the mass after each experiment. After plotting the graph of the invariant mass of two photon system they found a peak rising at 125 GeV mass of two photon system. The peak that showed up defines the presence of higgs boson. If there was no higgs boson the graph must have been curve. Below graph is the invariant mass of two photon system.

This is how higgs boson was discovered. In above graph the peak contains about 500 photon pair at 125 GeV. Hence, out of 150 thousand pairs of photon only 500 made us sure about the presence of higgs boson.

Now let us know what exactly is higgs boson and does it give mass to a particle?. Higgs Boson is an elementary particle that as a special stand in the standard model. It has mass of 125 GeV and is a result of slight excitation in the higgs field. It has no charge, no spin and can decay into various other lighter particle. Higgs boson doesn’t give mass to particles but presence of higgs boson confirms the presence of higgs field, higgs field is everywhere filling whole universe around us, when particle move through higgs field they gain mass by interacting with it. Physicist also suggests that due to higgs bosons interaction with mass, may be higgs boson could transform or decay into dark matter particle.

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Career in artificial intelligence.

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Career in artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI): IT is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. If you consider career in artificial intelligence in India, there are handful of big companies that are currently into it. Artificial Intelligence is a revolutionary technology that’s changing the world by empowering industries with smart solutions.
Artificial intelligence jobs gives many opportunities for the technology and it’s development , you can explore technology and science in artificial intelligence……
In artificial intelligence there are many jobs option and career growth..
• Data Mining Analyst
• Machine Learning Researcher
• Working in the Military
• Robotics Programmer
• Video Game Programmer
• Software Engineer

• Big Data Engineer
• · Business Intelligence Developer
• · Data Scientist
• · Machine Learning Engineer
• · Research Scientist
• · AI Data Analyst
• · Product Manager
• · AI Engineer
Scope of artificial intelligence in different areas

  1. In the field of education
    Educational software can be adapted to student needs
    Artificial intelligence can automate basic activities in education, like grading

Students could get additional support from AI tutors
AI-driven programs can give students and educators helpful feedback
Data powered by AI can change how schools find, teach, and support students.

Institute which offers Artificial Intelligence

  1. Tech stack
  2. IIT
  3. Chandigarh University
  4. Digitech Vidya
  5. National Institute of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in the functioning of the world around us and continues to advance and improve the quality of life in multiple industrial environments. Anyone seeking a career in this field and willing to strive for a high level of education will be quickly accepted in this constantly growing, high-paying industry.

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Human Evolution: Bionic Eye

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As constantly evolving species humans are redefining their own evolution by interconnecting the natural and synthetic world. Bionic technology is the major pay role that is inter-winding Human-Machine interface. Today let us know about one of the applications of this bionic technology; Visual Prosthesis or Bionic eye.

A visual prosthesis or bionic eye is a medical device that is intended to restore functional vision to those who are suffering from partial and complete blindness. 

eSight is one the visual prosthesis that uses a video camera to capture activities that are happening in front of the user in real time, it also allows the user to control the video processing and then through a series of advanced optics and very high resolution display it presents the video in such a way that the user can see the activities happening in front of him/her. eSight is developed for the people who are legally blind ( the person who’s vision is 20/200 is considered to be legally blind). 

This is Yvonne Felix an eSight 3 user. Her eyes have a blind spot that covers 98% of her visual field. She was 8 years old when doctor realised that Yvonne has a macular degeneration, over the years she lost her vision. But thanks to eSight that helped her to restore her vision

But the product like this is useful for the people that are partially blind or legally blind. 

There are over 39 million people in the world completely blind. Second sight a U.S based medical product company is working in their next generation product called the Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System, an investigational device intended to bring artificial vision to individuals who are blind due to a wide range of causes, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, optic nerve injury or disease, or forms of cancer and trauma. Their previous product Argus® II, approved by the FDA for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, has been implanted in 350+ individuals worldwide, restoring functional, artificial vision by renewing light perception and transforming the daily experience in the majority of individuals.

Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System is goggle shaped with a camera setup. One end of the goggle is connected to a Video Processing Unit (VPU) where the user can adjust parameters like zoom, contrast etc. The processed video signal is sent to the other end of the goggle where a transmitting antenna is attached that transmits the signal as well as power to the implanted or receiving antenna in the brain. 

The signal then reaches an electronic circuit that decodes the signal received from the antenna and sends simulation pulses to the electrode ray which is implanted in the visual cortex between the halves of the brain. Once the implant is in position it requires a thorough and complex calibration which involves making changes in electrodes individually and mapping where the user could perceive vision. After the device is properly setup one will experience flashing lights, but later would experience vision.

The company is working with 6 blind patients to test the prototype. During the calibration of 12 month one of a patient got a seizure, from the result released in June 2019. The product is going through lots of development which may take little longer before entering the market.

The product would be a life-changing for the sightless once entered the market. Evolution of humans hasn’t stop just because we are here, we are changing the evolution by interconnecting natural and synthetic life.

– Abhishek Sharma

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