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Human Evolution: Bionic Limb

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Modern advances in the field of prosthetics are changing the lives of the disabled all across the globe. Bionic technology is rapidly growing since the 2000s, with changing the view of how humans can look like? From Rigid prosthetics to modular prosthetics, this technology has come a way long to combine human to machine. Bionic technology is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature that inspire engineering to make a replica of these methods artificially. And today let’s understand more about, most common prosthetic ‘Bionic Limbs’.

Bionic limbs are artificially designed limbs (like hands and legs) that help a physically disabled human to perform a motor function like walking, grabbing a ball, etc. These limbs use motor sensors or myo-electronics that capture and convert muscle signals to electrical signal helping to move the prosthetic attached. Being a very useful technology bionic limbs are still unavailable for common people due to high price.

But thanks to the revolution in 3-D printing, Callum miller made the first 3-D printed prosthetic for his son Jamie which took over 18 months at his home. After building the 3-D printed prosthetic Callum is looking for a new approach to add myo-electronics in the prosthetic to have better motion. The problem with these prosthetics is the patient wearing it lacks a sense of touch. The patient couldn’t feel his prosthetic arm as part of his body.

John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory situated in Baltimore, Maryland has become an incubator for the new emerging bionic technology that is pushing the limits of human-machine interfaces. It all started in 2005 when DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Programme Agency) initiated a program to take prosthetics to a whole new level. Engineers at this laboratory have developed a Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) a bionic arm that responds to human thoughts. The MPL interprets and converts signals from the body’s nervous system to motion when MPL interacts with object signals from over 100 Sensors send information back to the brain creating a sense of touch. The technology of MPL has revolutionized bionic technology by adding the sense of touch. This is the first step of human to become a cyborg. We have successfully created a machine which is a part of our own body.

Melissa Loomis is one of the first amputee from Ohio in the world to be able to feel through a robotic prosthetic. Before getting an MPL Melissa went through a surgery called sensory re-innervation which helps the sensor attached to her arm to perfectly sync with the MPL.

As humans, we develop new tools for better living and that changes the way we live in the future. The effect that robotic bodies will have in our future is already raising serious social questions. Today the imagination of human evolution into cyborg is near. Our future with a human-machine interface is near. Are you worried or excited for the future of cyborgs?

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Career in artificial intelligence.

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Career in artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI): IT is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. If you consider career in artificial intelligence in India, there are handful of big companies that are currently into it. Artificial Intelligence is a revolutionary technology that’s changing the world by empowering industries with smart solutions.
Artificial intelligence jobs gives many opportunities for the technology and it’s development , you can explore technology and science in artificial intelligence……
In artificial intelligence there are many jobs option and career growth..
• Data Mining Analyst
• Machine Learning Researcher
• Working in the Military
• Robotics Programmer
• Video Game Programmer
• Software Engineer

• Big Data Engineer
• · Business Intelligence Developer
• · Data Scientist
• · Machine Learning Engineer
• · Research Scientist
• · AI Data Analyst
• · Product Manager
• · AI Engineer
Scope of artificial intelligence in different areas

  1. In the field of education
    Educational software can be adapted to student needs
    Artificial intelligence can automate basic activities in education, like grading

Students could get additional support from AI tutors
AI-driven programs can give students and educators helpful feedback
Data powered by AI can change how schools find, teach, and support students.

Institute which offers Artificial Intelligence

  1. Tech stack
  2. IIT
  3. Chandigarh University
  4. Digitech Vidya
  5. National Institute of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in the functioning of the world around us and continues to advance and improve the quality of life in multiple industrial environments. Anyone seeking a career in this field and willing to strive for a high level of education will be quickly accepted in this constantly growing, high-paying industry.

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Human Evolution: Bionic Eye

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As constantly evolving species humans are redefining their own evolution by interconnecting the natural and synthetic world. Bionic technology is the major pay role that is inter-winding Human-Machine interface. Today let us know about one of the applications of this bionic technology; Visual Prosthesis or Bionic eye.

A visual prosthesis or bionic eye is a medical device that is intended to restore functional vision to those who are suffering from partial and complete blindness. 

eSight is one the visual prosthesis that uses a video camera to capture activities that are happening in front of the user in real time, it also allows the user to control the video processing and then through a series of advanced optics and very high resolution display it presents the video in such a way that the user can see the activities happening in front of him/her. eSight is developed for the people who are legally blind ( the person who’s vision is 20/200 is considered to be legally blind). 

This is Yvonne Felix an eSight 3 user. Her eyes have a blind spot that covers 98% of her visual field. She was 8 years old when doctor realised that Yvonne has a macular degeneration, over the years she lost her vision. But thanks to eSight that helped her to restore her vision

But the product like this is useful for the people that are partially blind or legally blind. 

There are over 39 million people in the world completely blind. Second sight a U.S based medical product company is working in their next generation product called the Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System, an investigational device intended to bring artificial vision to individuals who are blind due to a wide range of causes, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, optic nerve injury or disease, or forms of cancer and trauma. Their previous product Argus® II, approved by the FDA for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, has been implanted in 350+ individuals worldwide, restoring functional, artificial vision by renewing light perception and transforming the daily experience in the majority of individuals.

Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System is goggle shaped with a camera setup. One end of the goggle is connected to a Video Processing Unit (VPU) where the user can adjust parameters like zoom, contrast etc. The processed video signal is sent to the other end of the goggle where a transmitting antenna is attached that transmits the signal as well as power to the implanted or receiving antenna in the brain. 

The signal then reaches an electronic circuit that decodes the signal received from the antenna and sends simulation pulses to the electrode ray which is implanted in the visual cortex between the halves of the brain. Once the implant is in position it requires a thorough and complex calibration which involves making changes in electrodes individually and mapping where the user could perceive vision. After the device is properly setup one will experience flashing lights, but later would experience vision.

The company is working with 6 blind patients to test the prototype. During the calibration of 12 month one of a patient got a seizure, from the result released in June 2019. The product is going through lots of development which may take little longer before entering the market.

The product would be a life-changing for the sightless once entered the market. Evolution of humans hasn’t stop just because we are here, we are changing the evolution by interconnecting natural and synthetic life.

– Abhishek Sharma

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