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Why do we have blood types?

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Blood is bodily fluid that circulates through body and deliver essential nutrients and oxygen to every cell of our body.

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A greek doctor from 200 BC believed that blood was created from food and liver, this thought lived nearly 1500 years. It was early 17th century when a British ‘Dr. William Harvey’ discovered that blood circulated circulated through body. This experiment spawned the age of blood transfusion. In 1665 an english physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing blood of another dog into his body. Later after two years doctors experimented transfusing animals blood into human body in which the human patient died due to blood clotting.

It wasn’t until 1900s when ‘Dr. Karl Landsteiner’ understood that animals even humans have different blood. He later researched on blood and developed a system to categorize blood type known as A-B-O blood group system. Dr. Landsteiner traced transfusion complication like death and blood clot is caused by two things Antigens and Antibodies. Antigen is anything that triggers our immune system to respond. Usually viruses and Bacteria fall in this category, usually our immune system recognize these invaders and deploy antibodies to destroy them. Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that can recognize, investigate and if needed can destroy Antigens.But our own body also produce some Antigens called Self-Antigens which our immune system leave them alone. The whole A-B-O group system  is based upon these sugar based Self-Antigens and corresponding protein based antibodies. 

Depending upon the presence and absence of these Antigens and Antibodies our blood is divided into four types. Type A blood has A-antigen on blood and B-antibody in plasma. Type B blood has B-antigen on blood and A-antibody in plasma. Type AB has both A-antigen and B-antigen with no Antibodies in plasma. Type O has both A-antibody and B-antibody with no Antigens on blood. 

The positives and the negatives after our blood type is given by detecting the presence or absence of Rh protein based Antigen. Presence of Rh protein gives positive sign after blood type while absence gives negative sign after blood type. 

Blood is foremost the most important fluid in our body. By understanding our blood we can ensure tranfusing right blood type to the needy ones.

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Career in artificial intelligence.

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Career in artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI): IT is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. If you consider career in artificial intelligence in India, there are handful of big companies that are currently into it. Artificial Intelligence is a revolutionary technology that’s changing the world by empowering industries with smart solutions.
Artificial intelligence jobs gives many opportunities for the technology and it’s development , you can explore technology and science in artificial intelligence……
In artificial intelligence there are many jobs option and career growth..
• Data Mining Analyst
• Machine Learning Researcher
• Working in the Military
• Robotics Programmer
• Video Game Programmer
• Software Engineer

• Big Data Engineer
• · Business Intelligence Developer
• · Data Scientist
• · Machine Learning Engineer
• · Research Scientist
• · AI Data Analyst
• · Product Manager
• · AI Engineer
Scope of artificial intelligence in different areas

  1. In the field of education
    Educational software can be adapted to student needs
    Artificial intelligence can automate basic activities in education, like grading

Students could get additional support from AI tutors
AI-driven programs can give students and educators helpful feedback
Data powered by AI can change how schools find, teach, and support students.

Institute which offers Artificial Intelligence

  1. Tech stack
  2. IIT
  3. Chandigarh University
  4. Digitech Vidya
  5. National Institute of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in the functioning of the world around us and continues to advance and improve the quality of life in multiple industrial environments. Anyone seeking a career in this field and willing to strive for a high level of education will be quickly accepted in this constantly growing, high-paying industry.

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Human Evolution: Bionic Eye

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As constantly evolving species humans are redefining their own evolution by interconnecting the natural and synthetic world. Bionic technology is the major pay role that is inter-winding Human-Machine interface. Today let us know about one of the applications of this bionic technology; Visual Prosthesis or Bionic eye.

A visual prosthesis or bionic eye is a medical device that is intended to restore functional vision to those who are suffering from partial and complete blindness. 

eSight is one the visual prosthesis that uses a video camera to capture activities that are happening in front of the user in real time, it also allows the user to control the video processing and then through a series of advanced optics and very high resolution display it presents the video in such a way that the user can see the activities happening in front of him/her. eSight is developed for the people who are legally blind ( the person who’s vision is 20/200 is considered to be legally blind). 

This is Yvonne Felix an eSight 3 user. Her eyes have a blind spot that covers 98% of her visual field. She was 8 years old when doctor realised that Yvonne has a macular degeneration, over the years she lost her vision. But thanks to eSight that helped her to restore her vision

But the product like this is useful for the people that are partially blind or legally blind. 

There are over 39 million people in the world completely blind. Second sight a U.S based medical product company is working in their next generation product called the Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System, an investigational device intended to bring artificial vision to individuals who are blind due to a wide range of causes, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, optic nerve injury or disease, or forms of cancer and trauma. Their previous product Argus® II, approved by the FDA for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, has been implanted in 350+ individuals worldwide, restoring functional, artificial vision by renewing light perception and transforming the daily experience in the majority of individuals.

Orion® Visual Cortical Prosthesis System is goggle shaped with a camera setup. One end of the goggle is connected to a Video Processing Unit (VPU) where the user can adjust parameters like zoom, contrast etc. The processed video signal is sent to the other end of the goggle where a transmitting antenna is attached that transmits the signal as well as power to the implanted or receiving antenna in the brain. 

The signal then reaches an electronic circuit that decodes the signal received from the antenna and sends simulation pulses to the electrode ray which is implanted in the visual cortex between the halves of the brain. Once the implant is in position it requires a thorough and complex calibration which involves making changes in electrodes individually and mapping where the user could perceive vision. After the device is properly setup one will experience flashing lights, but later would experience vision.

The company is working with 6 blind patients to test the prototype. During the calibration of 12 month one of a patient got a seizure, from the result released in June 2019. The product is going through lots of development which may take little longer before entering the market.

The product would be a life-changing for the sightless once entered the market. Evolution of humans hasn’t stop just because we are here, we are changing the evolution by interconnecting natural and synthetic life.

– Abhishek Sharma

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