Mucormycosis: The Black Fungus
COVID-19 and The Black Fungus (informally referred to as The Black Fungus) is the new lethal complication.
• India is combating the deadly second wave of coronavirus and lately, such potentially deadly complication is being observed in patients recovering from COVID-19 all over the country and this has increased the tensions.
• Being a medical student, I’d like to elaborate this topic, and share a bit of information I have and let the plebs out there understand this in quite a simple way.
• What is mucormycosis and it’s cause?
(previously termed zygomycosis)
Mucormycosis is any fungal infection, non-contagious, typically caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes or by a fungi in order Mucorales. Can be fatal if left unattended. Mucoralean fungi are the first colonisers of dead or decaying plant material.
• There are several types of mucormycosis such as Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis, Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis, Pulmonary (lung) Mucormycosis and Cutaneous (skin) Mucormycosis and Disseminated Mucormycosis.
But the most common one, which is found in the COVID-19 patients is the Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis. The overall mortality rate is approximately 50% that rises to about 85% in Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis. There is no vaccine to prevent mucormycosis.
• What are the sources of this fungus?
Common sources of infections are from soil, damp walls on old buildings, decaying organic matter.
Recently mentioned source, that only distilled water should be used for hydrating oxygen, sometimes tap water, or any other available water, is being used either due to ignorance or negligence.
• How is it medically diagnosed?
Presumptive diagnosis is based on the patient’s history and physical examination.
Tests such as CT or MRI help defining the extent of infection or tissue destruction.
• Who’s at higher risk?
Not all people having COVID-19 obtain mucormycosis, but the most prone to getting affected may be:
- People taking immunosuppressant steroid medications to manage pre-existing illnesses as well as COVID-19, over a long period of time. Because steroids reduce immunity and push up blood sugar levels in both diabetics and non-diabetic patients.
- Prolonged ICU stay.
- People having weakened immune system because of previous organ transplant surgeries or cancer therapy procedures.
- People with HIV/AIDS, congenital bone marrow disease, diabetes mellitus are prone to developing mucormycosis.
• What are the common symptoms?
- Dark scabbing in the nose and by the eyes
- Necrotic black lesions on the hard palate
- Unilateral facial swelling or near cheekbones,
reddish skin over nose
- Sinusitis: nasal clogging or congestion with bloody or blackish mucus discharge
- Hazy vision: objects appearing blurred or in double
- Tooth ache, or pain in jawbone
- Abnormal blood clotting or thrombosis
- Black pus from eyes in case of periorbital infection.
• What should be the obvious treatment?
Once diagnosed, urgent medical care by a team of specialists including a microbiologist, internal medicine expert, neurologist, ENT Specialist, ophthalmologist, dentist should be given. It must be fast and aggressive, because the tissue damage caused cannot be reversed.
- Antifungal medications: Amphotericin B given intravenously is the usual drug of choice. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B are often used as first-line treatment.
Also, posaconazole or isavuconazole may treat mucormycosis can be given orally too.
- Surgical debridement of the infected area.
• What are serious complications?
- Blindness: in case of periorbital infection where eye is affected and vision is lost.
- Meningitis: inflammation of the membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
- Pulmonary hemorrhages.
- Brain abscesses.
• Is it possible to prevent Mucormycosis?
- Good control or treatment of health problems with diabetes.
- Ensuring personal hygiene.
- Wearing face masks, face shields, gloves and all protecting equipments.
- Patients recovering from COVID-19 should stay indoors and should take extreme care.
Akshay Kadam spills out secret to stay fit.
As today we all are home, we look towards doing something productive and the majority are staying physically fit by working out at home. But as we all know we are not experts in this so recently we interviewed one of the finest India’s online trainer as well as nutritionist-Akshay Kadam
It was a very interesting interview, we have covered almost all questions you people asked. We are lucky as we got this opportunity through paradox India.
So let’s get to this very interesting and helpful chat.
Q. How your journey started to become a fitness trainer?
Akshay Kadam- Everyone has their own dream, that’s normal . When I was a teen my immune system was weak I used to get sick often and so my mom said that I will not be able to do in fitness so my parents told me to study good and get a nice government job and yes by looking at me I started focusing on what my parents said. So as growing up, while I was in college my interest went into dance I got in that participated in competitions,inter college and all but then after sometime again I lost my interest in dance so I completed my graduation and then I got a job in a company in HR department and I worked there for 1 year but then I thought about my passion that I should enjoy what I love doing, so I changed my profession. So at that it was difficult not too difficult but yes I don’t have any job that time and I got into fitness so I used to stand beside a park with my pamphlets from 6 am to 9 pm. Because I was firm on my opinion there was no plan B. So after 3 months I got a vaccancy of a trainer to look after the workout plans, diet plans and with my basic studyfication. But last year I lost my job due to this pandemic so I thought about making my own personal fitness training online so within 3 months I made my own website with the help of YouTube and then I mentioned in that website I would be your personal trainer, all the
Workout, diet plans. So in this way I became an online fitness trainer.
Q. How can you get the certification of fitness? / How can we become a fitness trainer?
Akshay Kadam- There are many ways, there are many academies, courses, etc. we can get through these. Personally I m doing one now. Also I think focus on getting knowledge instead of just a certificate.
Q. Many people say this profession is not that convenient so, can you please mention us some plus point of this profession.
Akshay Kadam- I will tell you this by one example I started a 1 month home workout challenge in which I will help my clients personally through their workout, diet routine. So there were total 20 clients. I cost 2000 rs per person so now if you just multiply the amount it’s 40000rs and it’s good for 1 month if you have the knowledge you can do anything.
Q. How many celebrities you have trained till now?
Akshay- More than 10, not a big number. There are bloggers, fashion designers, and all
Q. How would you construct a new client’s nutrition plan?
Akshay- So, first I would ask them what they are doing right now,are there any medical issues, injuries, at what time they like to eat,when they are on vacation, how much water do they drink etc. and then keeping in mind these things I will plan their nutrition.
Q. Which is more important to you physical fitness or nutrition?
Akshay- I would say nutrition as everyone is not into working out for hours. Nutrition is something you have to follow. If I am 70 years old not going to gym or not taking any weight I can still remain fit by following my nutrition.
Q. What do you think is yoga good?
Akshay- Yes of course yoga is good for health. It depends on person to person I prefer to run on a treadmill to burn my calories but some other will not prefer that.
Q. Yoga takes 1 year to become fit but gym takes 2-3 months, so what are some plus points of gym?
Akshay- Yoga takes time. As in gym you build up your immune system strong faster. Yoga is good for those who can’t perform gym.
Q. According to you for a healthy person what kind of nutrition supplement will you suggest?
Akshay- It’s not compulsory, if you are following a diet you don’t need any protein powder unless and until your doctor has suggest you to take because of low defeciency, calcium, vitamins. You don’t need that’s what I think it’s all about the calories intake, the more calories you burn it’s good.
Q. Can we make protein powder at home?
Akshay- You can make peanut butter at home instead of buying from outside as it contains chemicals, preservatives. Take some peanuts grind it, add some honey, peanut oil and viola you are done it’s good, ready at home. I recommend this to many of my clients.
Q. How can we loose extra fat?
Akshay- It’s not like the fat we eat is the fat we gain it’s all about the calories intake don’t eat beyond your limit. Otherwise eat whatever you want.
Q. How can someone join you online training?
Akshay- You just have to visit my website and there you will get all the information you need in detail.
Q. Can we loose our weight by eating sprouts?
Yes, oats, sprouts, dry fruits can reduce your weight. But once again if you are eating above your calories intake you need to do some workout.
Q. Excercise for loosing belly fat?
Akshay- Berpees, lunges helps a lot. Push ups are not compulsory. Those 2 exercises will do work.
Q. Is it necessary to control sugar?
Akshay- Yess when you consume a lot of sugar there are insulin, dibaties issues. I was a sweet lover but from last 6 years I have controlled it.
Q. Suggestions of brand?
Akshay- GNC, GM I have personally worked with them.
Akshay- If anyone wants to join this industry it’s a good time further people will start giving priority to physical fitness, it’s the best time to join.
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People often sacrifice foot health for fashion, but at what cost ?
Considering the fashion of footwear in this modern era not only causes pain but also hampers the structural alignment of the body . Footwears like high heels , narrow bellies , flat slippers , narrow loafers etc has a localised effect as well as has an impact on entire posture of the body. Therefore people must know how these footwears cause various changes.
The following is an abstract that will enlighten you about various changes that your choice of footwear can make.
An attractive pair of footwear can make a perfect outfit , but with this style comes much sufferings . Even though this causes discomfort and prolonged pain , this barely stops anyone from wearing themoccasionally or daily.
When heels are been worn by women for a long period of time, their entire body weight is transferred to the forefoot which strains the calf muscles. This imposes enormous pressure on the knee.
Further upwards , a women’s body will attempt to compensate and create balance by forward rotation of the pelvis which increases curvature of lower spine .This causes the lower back to push forward and results in hollowing . To compensate the hollowing the upper back becomes concave which leads to forward posture of shoulder and neck. Therefore bad alignment and tense muscles are its biggest repercussions .
Similarly when people go for narrow bellies , flat pumps and loafers they strenuously try to adjust their toes into these kind of footwears which cause sstrain on the midfoot. This results in the “plantar fasciitis” i,e. Inflammation causing pain in the midfoot . Consequently reducing the arches of foot and causing flat foot .
Flat foot changes the weight bearing pattern of our body and hence disturbs the posture of our body. Poor posture can not only impact a person physically but also brings down an individual’s self esteem by hampering the personality.
One can consider the following recommendations before making a choice for their footwear :
● Avoid wearing high heels for prolonged period of time.
● Stretch leg muscles before and after putting them on.
● If possible go for platform heels.
● Avoid choosing pointed toe heels or flat bellies to allow our foot to breathe. ● Buy a wide variety of footwear with proper arches and gripped sole.