We can’t even think the existence of life without sunlight. But probably it would not have been possible to live the life we are living without the Ozone layer. This stratospheric layer that shields Earth from most of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation facilitates life in this beautiful world with peace and harmony. And today, 16 September we celebrate the World Ozone Day, commemorating the treaty signed before 35 years by 197 countries to protect this precious gift of nature.
The Ozone layer which is also known as the Ozone shield is a delicate layer of gas in the Earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the Sun’s radiation which can be responsible for numerous skin problems and heart diseases.
Why we celebrate Ozone day:
Since, Industrialization era started a numbers of commonly used chemicals were beagn commencing for the different gadegts and appliances that proved to be extremely damaging to the ozone layer. Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine or Iodine are some generally used chemicals that destroy the ozone layer when their atoms emerge with ozone in the stratosphere. Also, according to study, one chlorine atom is enough to destroy almost 1,00,000 ozone molecules before it vacates from the stratosphere. Ozone is very delicate and rapidly get destroyed while it takes years to be created naturally.
Later, with severe increase in the use of chemicals, scientists working in the late 1970s realized that human activities were slowly formulating a hole in this shield, gurading our environment and warnings were declared openly with an urging need to act open it. The hole – caused by ozone-depleting gases (ODSs) used in perfumes, cooling systems such as refrigerators and air-conditioners, was jeopardizing the life of humans and became responsible for the damage in ecosystems.
To preserve the ozone layer, in 1985, The Vienna Convention under the Montreal Protocal was signed for the protection of the Ozone layer. And it’s practical implications were enforced on 16 September, before 35 years. It is also recognized as the most successful international environmental agreement to date because it had phaseout more than 90% of chemicals harmful for environment. So, 16 September is celebrated as World Ozone Day, to highlight the achievement made by the collective efforts of everyone, Government, Industrialists, and local people.
Problems associated with Carbon Molecules:
Carbon outflux from Earth’s interior to the exosphere through volcanic eruptions, fault zones, and geothermal systems contribute to the global carbon cycle that effects short- and long-term climate of the Earth. Himalaya hosts about 600 geothermal springs having varied temperature and chemical conditions. Their role in regional and global climate, as well as the process of tectonic driven gas emission, needs to be considered while estimating emissions to the carbon cycle and thereby to global warming.
Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, which investigated and characterised the gas emissions from Himalayan geothermal springs, found that these springs which cover about 10,000 square km in the Garhwal region of Himalaya, show a significant discharge of Carbon dioxide (CO2) rich water. The estimated carbon dioxide degassing (removal of dissolved gases from liquids, especially water or aqueous solutions) flux is nearly 7.2 ×106 mol/year to the atmosphere.
An approach towards being carbon neutral would mean excessive job loss and that’s the reason that amongst 196 countries only Bhutan has been the only country that has remained Carbon neutral. Bhutan is arguably the world’s happiest country. It’s also one of the greenest. That’s no coincidence. In fact, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck developed his signature Gross National Happiness index based on four pillars: sustainable development, environmental protection, cultural preservation, and good governance. Other countries have taken note, since the Himalayan kingdom is not only carbon neutral, but carbon negative.
As a travel destination Bhutan remains unique, sandwiched between its heavily industrialized neighbours China and India. The isolated nation only opened up to foreign visits in 1974 and allowed TVs in 1999.
Tshering Tobgay, Bhutan’s Prime Minister said at a Ted Talk in 2016 had said, “Bhutan has built sustainability into its national identity. “Our enlightened monarchs have worked tirelessly to develop our country, balancing economic growth carefully with social development, environmental sustainability, and cultural preservation, all within the framework of good governance”. In fact, the constitution of Bhutan mandates that 60 percent of its landmass be maintained and protected as forest. One of the ways the country maintains this is controlled through low impact tourism.
The Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is the landmark multilateral environmental agreement that regulates the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals referred to as ozone depleting substances (ODS). When released to the atmosphere, those chemicals damage the stratospheric ozone layer, Earth’s protective shield that protects humans and the environment from harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Adopted on 15 September 1987, the Protocol is to date the only UN treaty ever that has been ratified every country on Earth – all 197 UN Member States.
The Montreal Protocol phases down the consumption and production of the different ODS in a step-wise manner, with different timetables for developed and developing countries (referred to as “Article 5 countries”). Under this treaty, all parties have specific responsibilities related to the phase out of the different groups of ODS, control of ODS trade, annual reporting of data, national licensing systems to control ODS imports and exports, and other matters. Developing and developed countries have equal but differentiated responsibilities, but most importantly, both groups of countries have binding, time-targeted and measurable commitments.
All you need to know about the Armenia-Azerbaijan Clash
All you need to know about the Armenia-Azerbaijan Clash
Armenia and Azerbaijan is a small country located in between Turkey, Russia and Iran. Armenia is mostly a christian majority country with 95% of it’s 30 million population practising christanity and Azerbaijan comprises 99% of muslim population. This conflict can escalate into a full fledged war according to experts.The population of Azerbaijan is 10 million and both are secular countries. The conflict is about a small region called Nagorno-Karabakh region. Both of these countries were part of the USSR till 1990. Both these countries attained independence from the USSR in 1991. This Nagorno-Karabakh region is partially occupied by both Armenia and Azerbaijan. This region is a heavy mountainous region and it is tough to access this region. According to the 2015 census only 1.5 lakh people live in this Nagorno-Karabakh region in an area of 4400 square kilometers. This population of this region is ethnically Armenian.
This region has been disputed since 1920 when both these countries were part of the erstwhile Soviet Union. This region belonged to Azerbaijan till 1990 and it was an autonomous region controlled by Moscow directly. When the USSR split then Moscow decided to hand over this region to Azerbaijan but then the local provincial assembly voted to stay with Armenia. This voting was opposed by Moscow and Azerbaijan governments. After this the Armenian separatists occupied a part of the Nagorno-Karabakh region and they have been running the government in that part backed by the government of Armenia. But according to the International law this region is part of Azerbaijan because when this region was split up in 1991 then Moscow had decided to merge this territory with Azerbaijan.
This region has seen heavy ceasefire violations since 1991 up till 2020. Recent clashes have continued over several days. You can understand this territory similarly like Kashmir where both India and Pakistan claim Kashmir. In May 1994 USA, France and Russia had tried to implement a ceasefire so that these countries could talk and negotiate but all in vain. This conflict started on 27 september 2020 and since then both countries have said that the other one broke the ceasefire first. Russia plays a very important role here. Russia has a military base in Armenia and it supplies weapons to Azerbaijan but it has not said a word over this conflict.
Turkey on the other hand supports Azerbaijan openly since Turkey and Azerbaijan have strong relations and Armenia does not have good relations with Turkey. In the first week of October Turkish F-16s were seen in Armenian airspace thus, adding fuel to the fire. Turkey has openly said that it will provide military support to Azerbaijan if needed and it is trying to flex its muscle power in the region. Turkey and Azerbaijan being muslim countries are natural allies. Armenian foreign minister has said that this conflict is a preplanned strategy of Azerbaijan with Turkish support.
Turkey is a bigger country and it wants to influence a smaller nation like Azerbaijan. Turkey buys crude oil and gas from Azerbaijan and similarly Azerbaijan is one of the main investors of Turkey. So it is natural that they will come together. Their economic ties are stronger than ever. On the other side Turkey and Armenia have strain relations. During the ottoman empire a genocide was conducted over the armenians by the turks. This charge is denied by the Turkey government and so does Azerbaijan deny it in the support of its ally.
Azerbaijan is a republic just for namesake. Actually it is a dictatorship. After its split from the USSR their first president was Heydar Aliyev in 1991. He was president till 2003 then his son Ilham Aliyev succeeded him in 2003 and he has been the president since then. Ilham Aliyem has won every successive election since 2003 with over 80% vote share and it shows that there is no opposition in the country. Foreign journalists are not allowed to work freely and there are over 160 political prisoners. There is no free media in this country. So you can imagine if it is really a democracy. Whoever raises voice against the president then he/she is thrown into jails. Recently, in 2016 Aliyev held a controversial referendum according to which the minimum age to become the president of Azerbaijan has been brought down to 18 from 35. According to political experts this has been done so that his son can succeed him in 2025. There is no free press and this country ranks 146/157 in the global democracy index. You can imagine the scenario.
On the contrary Armenia ranks 86/167 and it is in a better position than Azerbaijan. Till 2018 Armenia was itself a dictatorship. In 2018 25 lakh people had protested on roads out of its 30 lakh odd population. The protestors were protesting over the election fraud conducted by the then PM. 2.50 lakh people were on roads and not a single bullet was fired. It was a huge success. The Velvet revolution led to the establishment of democracy in Armenia. The then opposition leader Nikol Pashniyan under whom this revolution was initiated had been elected as the PM in 2018 and he is the PM currently. You can understand the situation yourself.
Azerbaijan kids are taught to hate Armenians naturally on account of nationalism. This is the propaganda being spread by the Azerbaijan government. Their economy is in turmoil because of low crude oil prices. But people are taught to think about nationalism. According to a 2012 poll 91% Azerbaijan people think that Armenians are their natural enemy and similarly 63% Armenians agree the same. Armenians are described as Bandits, hippocrates in the Azerbaijan books. In 2011, famous Azerbaijani chess player Taimur Radjabov had said that he hates armenians. Such is the scale of hate in between these 2 nations. In 1988 and 1989 3.5 lakh people were affected due to this conflict.
In July a major protest occurred in Azerbaijan and people marched to the parliament of their country and demanded that their president declare war on Armenia. Such is the scale of nationalism. They protested not on account of depreciating economy or dictatorship but to declare war. Such is the propaganda that Azerbaijani people are taught to hate Armenians. Nothing concrete will come out of it. You decide. What should be done?
Amid covid 19 is it okay to fight?
Indian economy to shrink 5.9% with ‘permanent income loss
The number of cases rising in India is unlikely going to ebb anytime soon. While India is setting the record for the highest surge in numbers of coronavirus cases in a single day, the Indian government on Monday announced the country’s biggest economic contraction in 24 years.
India’s economy to witness a great contraction of 5.9% by the end of 2020 predicted by The United Nations’ Conference on Trade and Development in a report, warning that while growth will rebound next year, the contraction is likely to translate into a permanent income loss.
Stressed days ahead:
Pandemic puts more pressure on India’s stressed economy. COVID-19 is slamming every possible sector across the nation and also triggered massive job loss.
Even the job portal launched by the government in July has seen the humungous registration of over 6.9 million people in just 40 days, reported by The Indian Express.
India had never tallied a quarter of negative growth since it commenced issuing such data publicly in 1996. Furthermore, no other big economy has shrunk with such a ratio during the pandemic. In the same period, America’s GDP fell by 9.1%. India’s economy had been stumbling before COVID-19.
While we think the situation in Indian related to the economy has worsened during the galloping outbreak, experts say that the country’s economic indicators were already to it’s worst side before the pandemic.
The complete Wipeout:
‘Already the quake of Covid-19 has triggered another round of cuts in central bank policy rates for advanced economies that had favorable ratios before the crisis and also for many developing economies, which even includes the high inflation countries such as Argentina and Turkey’, a report by UNCTAD described.
Further, the world is grappling with the equivalent of a complete Wipeout of the Brazilian, Mexican, Indian economies.
The domestic activities are contracting, eventually affecting the international economy. In a view to the future, it will shrink by around one-fifth this year and foreign direct investment shall blow by up to 40%.
Triggered massive job loss:
“What is happening after the pandemic cannot be seen without what was happening before the pandemic. The jobs were already collapsing, the growth rate had declined. The situation was already terrible, and it further worsened because of the pandemic”, Ritu Dewan, Vice President of the Indian Society of Labour Economics and former director of the Department of Economics at the University of Mumbai, told Anadolu Agency.
For India, UNCTAD’s report added, “The baseline scenario is a sharp recession in 2020 as straight lockdown measures to stem the virus’ spread brought many productive activities to halt across the country. Although we expect a rebound in 2021 in line with growth rates of the Indian economy in recent years, the contraction registered in 2020 is likely to translate into a permanent job loss”.
V-shaped recovery will be misled:
“Forecasters talk of a V-shaped recovery is misleading. Such a recovery would require double-digit global growth next year, which is out of the question”, said Richard Kozul – Wright, UNCTAD’s director of the division on globalisation and development strategies.
Assessing the report, it asserted that a global recovery plan is in need of both bold and comprehensive invasion, built around a collaborative macroeconomic expansion focused on job creation and higher wages and supported by a big public investment push into cleaner energy, environmental protection, sustainable transport systems, and the care economy.
Following the report, 90-120 million people from developing nations will be thrust into extreme poverty, with approximately 300 million people facing food insecurity.
The existence of future generations, indeed of the planet itself, entirely depended on the options we all pick over the coming months.
Viral Video of crying Chinese. Are Chinese soldiers scared of Indian soldiers?
Recently, a short video of just few seconds got viral on social media depicting Chinese soldiers sobbing and singing “Green Flowers in the Army” in a bus. Soldiers seem to be too young.
The video didn’t take much time to get viral on twitter and Facebook.
This Viral Video was tweeted by a well renowned network, Taiwan News on Sunday. People got curious to know the exact reason behind the misadventure of these young People’s Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers.
The video location is to be known at Fuyang Railway Station while the troops were preparing to head to a military camp in Hebei province, according to Taiwan News.
This led to a war of words between mainland Chinese and Taiwanese media.
Taiwanese media like Liberty Times and Taiwan News, didn’t miss this chance to mock the soldiers for crying and clearly showing their weakness in the video.
Many are saying that this action of Chinese soldiers distinctly portraying that now Chinese are afraid of Indians after lately realising how powerful India is.
Indians too didn’t stand back in retweeting and sharing the video on social media.
China newspaper, Global Times defended by saying – “At that time, they were bidding farewell to their parents and sang the famous military song ‘Green Flowers in the Army’, and they sang ‘Go home when you celebrate your work’, completely contrary to the mood created by Taiwanese media,”. Chinese media debunks Taiwanese claim. China also added saying that Taiwan took video out of context and attempting to tarnish image of PLA troops.
Chinese media said that the soldiers got just too emotional, Taiwanese are just deliberately trying to manipulate the video and creating an issue.
Tension between India and China has been high since the standoff between Indians and Chinese armies in galwan valley in June this year.
Is china really scared of India? Or it’s just another trap for India to make India confuse?
Whatever it might be, but India is always ready to face it courageously with all its strength.
Indian soldiers will happily sacrifice their life for love for their motherland, if needed.
Girls and JEE exams
Dussehra (victory of good over evil)
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