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BLACK HOLE : an invisible denizen of our universe!



Well, what stuff hits your mind after thinking about Black hole? A dark enormous monster who engulfs whatever comes its way? That makes me giggle at it. Black hole is such a funky quite broad concept which has lots of secrets tugged inside. Have anyone been in a black hole ever? Well I have had been through it but in my beautiful world of fantasy. I know I sound shitty now.

Well, here are my manners being more authentic; a ‘black hole’ is where gravity has become so strong that nothing around it can escape, not even light. The mass of a black hole is so compact, or dense, that the force of gravity is too strong for even light to escape. Black holes ripping stars apart, a process that releases a tremendous amount of energy was observed by Scientists.

Ever wondered how the first black hole was discovered? It was by X-ray astronomy that bought us across this concept. Black hole is a region of space time (the 4-dimensional conceptual model combining the three dimensions of space and the dimension of time) surrounding a point of infinite density, the singularity, where both space and time break down, where the space time defining that precise location would cease to exist. Around that point, in a region, bound by the event horizon, from which neither particles nor any form of electromagnetic radiation can escape. That breaks up your ears? As nothing can escape a black hole — not visible light, infrared light, microwaves or any other form of radiation — black holes are invisible. So astronomers have had to “observe” them by studying how they affect their surroundings. For example, black holes often form powerful, bright jets of gas and radiation that are visible to telescopes. Physicists can use the size of that jet to estimate the size of the black hole responsible for the jet.

Lots of theories are discovered about black hole yet more left to be discovered. But what astonished me is knowing that even black holes completely evaporate and disappear but they take so long as longer than current age of the Universe. Um! Sorry but may ne we won’t get any photos of this scenario .

Although black holes cannot be seen, we know they exist from the way they affect nearby dust, stars and galaxies. Many of them are surrounded by discs of material. As the discs swirl around them like a whirlpool, they become extremely hot and give off X-rays. They come in many different sizes. Many of them are only a few times more massive than the Sun. These ‘stellar-mass’ black holes form when a heavyweight star, about 10 times heavier than the Sun, ends its life in a supernova explosion. What is left of the star – still several solar masses – collapses into an area only a few kilometres across. Most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have ‘supermassive black holes’ at their centres. These may be millions or billions of times heavier than our Sun.

Supermassive black holes also power active galaxies and ancient galaxies known as quasars. Quasars may be hundreds of times brighter than even the largest ordinary galaxies. Objects that fall into black holes are literally stretched to breaking point. An astronaut who ventured too close and was sucked into a black hole would be pulled apart by the overpowering gravity. That sounds scary and creates one more stumbling block to keep the theories of black hole undiscovered.
A photograph launched in 2019 revealed some pieces of information of Black hole it does look like “ring of fire” surrounding a perfectly circular dark hole as I term it so. Interestingly, the bright halo is caused by superheated gas falling into the hole and made black hole kinda reddish that’s hilarious like black hole got a red colour as its new friend.

Let’s peep deeper, a black hole isn’t truly a hole. It’s quite the opposite. A black hole is a place in space containing an enormous amount of mass packed very tightly together. And it has the capacity to draw in more mass all the time. These objects have so much mass — and therefore gravity — that nothing can escape them, not even light. That makes them some of the most extreme objects in the universe. And they aren’t just massive, but also dense. Density is a measure of how tightly mass is packed into a space. Imagine a black hole the size of New York City. It would have as much mass and gravity as our sun. Most black holes form after a giant star, one at least 10 times as massive as our sun, runs out of fuel and collapses. The star shrinks and shrinks and shrinks. Eventually, it forms a tiny dark point. This is known as a stellar-mass black hole. Now much smaller than the star that made it, this black hole still has the same mass and gravity.

Our galaxy the Milky Way may have some 100 million such black holes. Astronomers estimate a new one forms every second. Note that small- and medium-sized stars, such as the sun, cannot form black holes. When they run out of fuel, they just become small, planet-sized objects called white dwarfs.

Actual photo of black hole

Apparently, how can be black holes detected? As studied above Black holes are characterised by their extremely strong gravity, that doesn’t allow even light to escape; as a result, black holes are invisible. However they can be detected if they have a close companion star. The gravity of the black hole pulls the gas from the other star. The gravity of the black hole pulls the gas from the other star, forming an accretion disc that spirals around the black hole at high speed, heating up and emitting radiation. Eventually, the matter spirals in to cross the horizon i.e the boundary of the black hole.

This article of BLACK HOLE is by Anushka Sharad, a teen girl, who finds Astrophysics as a fascinating career. These immensely dense and invisible denizens of our universe are also among the most extreme. Support and let us know your reviews to come up with more engrossing and captivating stuffs related to Space and its family, and we assure you will love’em all and y’all wouldn’t take your hands of it!



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Dyson Sphere and Solar Power: The Future of Human Civilization



In future, when human civilization will colonize other planets in the solar system we will require ungodly amount of energy and we can it get it through our Star ‘Sun’. Yes, Sun is the ultimate source of energy. It is 100 quintillion times more powerful than our nuclear reactor. It shines with the energy of a trillion nuclear bombs per second.

So, do you know how can we get its whole energy? Not some of it, as we get through solar panels! For getting its whole energy we’ll have to build a mega structure called as ‘Dyson Sphere’.

Currently, we are slowly moving towards renewable energy and if human civilization doesn’t get destroyed due to our own petty politics or due to nature, we’ll be able to create a ‘Dyson sphere’.

It is a cosmic and hypothetical mega structure known as ‘Dyson sphere’. This Dyson Sphere has power to consume the total energy of Sun.

So,what woud it look like?

A solid shell enveloping the Sun is probably not the way to go. A large rigid body like that would be vulnerable to impact. Possibly it would be liable to drift and could also crash straight into the Sun. A practicable design for this mega structure can be a ‘Dyson Swarm’.

Dyson swarm is an enormous set of many orbiting panels that collects the Sun’s power and beam it to any other place.

Such thing will give humanity unlimited source of energy. But have you ever thought why we still didn’t make it? Sun holds 99.8% of the solar system’s mass and if we compare Earth to Sun, Sun is 109 times the diameter of Earth. So we would need many satellites for it. Suppose size of each satellite is 1 we’d need around 30 quadrillion for surrounding the mighty Sun!

Like this

Also we need the energy to actually put the parts together and also to deliver them to their specific positions around the Sun. So, currently its impossible for humans to make ‘Dyson sphere’.

This mega structure has its mini version.

Yes this structure is mini version of Dyson Sphere. (This structure also isn’t made by humans still but after 200 or 300 years we can make this structure) As satellite orbits the Earth, this structure will also orbit the Earth and they will absorb Sun’s energy. As satellite sends us signal in the way it will send us solar energy and looking at the speed of human’s advancement in technology approximately after 100 or 200 years such satellite will be orbiting our Earth and this will be our need in future because at that time we’ll lose most of the energy sources like Petrol, Diesel, Coal, etc. present here on Earth and also it will help us to get energy on other planet too!
This mini version of Dyson Sphere has its mini version too! and the good thing is it is made by humans!!!

This is it

This is it ‘Solar Panels’ a device which can transform some of the sun’s heat energy into our electricity and this Solar Panels which you seeing now aren’t just Solar Panels they will be our necessity in our future.
In the end I would like to say that human civilization will be totally depended for energy sources on these structures.

Hope you have found this interesting!

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The Creation Story



The Creation Story
As Albert Einstein said, “The important thing is to never stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existence.” This curiosity leads us to many great ideas, innovations, and discoveries, basically everything we see around us. It raises many unanswered questions too. As our universe is very vast and old and keeps expanding further and faster. But we don’t know the exact reason behind the expansion. Astronomers suggest many possibilities but none could stand strong expect a few.
In ancient time astronomers thought the earth was the center of the universe but as they keep observing the things, they encounter many fascinating facts like earth and other planets revolve around the sun, our solar system is a part of the galaxy, and our galaxy is not the only galaxy that exists in the whole universe. So they end up on one question, HOW? How it all started? Many astronomers try to prove their theories about the origin but 4 theories make more sense than others.

1.Steady State Universe!
This theory was popular and nearly accepted back in the ’20s. According to this theory, the universe has no beginning and no end, it’s just there from always and remains forever. But as its constantly expanding; however the density (weight) of the universe remains constant.
This theory was proposed by James Jeans in 1920 but it got real fame in 1948 when Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi reformulated it. But as new observation and pieces of evidence were taking place, astronomers slowly started to oppose the theory. Like certain features or behavior of the distant galaxies weren’t seen in the nearer galaxies, and this makes sense about the birth of the universe.

2.Simulated Universe!?
This theory is a modern theory and quite an interesting one. Have you watch one of those movies which stories are related to a simulated world like Metrics, Inception, Ready Player One, etc. What if I tell you our whole universe might be a simulation game? Well, this theory is getting a hike due to a recent statement by our beloved Elon Musk the visionary guy. He said in his one interview that we might are be living in a simulation game controlled by higher dimensions. We just don’t feel it because we are programmed to do whatever we are doing right now. As we see the progress graph of video games, we are come from windows XP to virtual reality and augmented reality, these technologies are near to reality. Soon we’ll unable to spot the difference between reality and simulation. So maybe that’s the case with us too. Let us know what you think about it.

3.Big Bang Theory!!
When it comes to the creation of the universe the strongest theory that comes in our mind is The Big Bang Theory because it is widely popular and nearly accepted by everyone as it makes more sense about the origin. Well, this theory was suggested by a Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître in the 1920s. He said the universe began from a single atom which is existed from the very beginning. He called that atom cosmic egg. And from that cosmic egg universe expands to get as huge as it is now. Later in the 1930s, Edvin Hubble observed that other galaxies are moving away from each other which suggests back in time they all were very close to each other. Fun fact, Einstein opposed this theory because he believed that the universe was static, and due to that he introduced the term in his General Relativity Field equation called cosmological constant. This term was trying to prove that the cosmological constant holding a universe in a static state. But as Hubble and Lemaître jointly publish their observations and pieces of evidence regarding the Big Bang, Einstein kinda convinced and removed the cosmological constant from his equation. It was Einstein’s biggest blunder in physics. But as more observations have taken place and found pieces of evidence, this theory got special attention and started to opposing Steady-state theory.

Anyway, the theory suggests that at the very beginning there was nothing but a tiny atom with infinite temperature and density called Singularity, and suddenly it exploded and created the universe we know today. Scientists found out the evidence of the explosion as they detect CMB i.e. Cosmic Microwave Background. CMB is the electromagnetic radiations left from the early stage of the universe, also known as the image of a baby universe. It represents the heat leftover from Big Bang. Even if this theory makes complete sense about the creation but still there are a lot of flaws in this theory. Like it violets the 1st law of thermodynamics which says that matter and energy neither be created nor be destroyed. This law is opposing the big explosion that happened during the Big Bang. This is why this is not widely accepted.

4.Vedic Rashmi Theory
When I first hear about the theory, it got my attention and I became more curious about this theory because it has a background of Vedas. It is a recently introduced theory by Acharya Agnivrat Naishthik. Rashmi means the very first ray of light. This theory gives three causes to the formation of the universe.

  1. Efficient cause = Anything cannot be created without a creator. The creator is always needed.
  2. Material cause = Any created thing can never take form without basic materials.
  3. Normal cause = Any created thing always needs a purpose. Creation cannot occur without purpose.
    It is explaining three Gunas (qualities) as a form of creation is mass, force, and motion. But higher science spoken by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Geeta says,

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मन: |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ||

Meaning = ‘Subtle, they say, are the senses; subtler than the senses is the mind; subtler than the mind is the reason; but subtler even the reason is He (Atman—Supreme force)’
This means the highest thing is beyond all these things and in that state, one can know all the mysteries of the universe.

All the theories we discuss the creation of the universe are just THEORIES! when we practically prove any one of them it’ll become a law of the universe. As Carl Sagan said’ “Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known”. Let us know your thoughts on creation.

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