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BLACK HOLE : an invisible denizen of our universe!

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Well, what stuff hits your mind after thinking about Black hole? A dark enormous monster who engulfs whatever comes its way? That makes me giggle at it. Black hole is such a funky quite broad concept which has lots of secrets tugged inside. Have anyone been in a black hole ever? Well I have had been through it but in my beautiful world of fantasy. I know I sound shitty now.

Well, here are my manners being more authentic; a ‘black hole’ is where gravity has become so strong that nothing around it can escape, not even light. The mass of a black hole is so compact, or dense, that the force of gravity is too strong for even light to escape. Black holes ripping stars apart, a process that releases a tremendous amount of energy was observed by Scientists.


Ever wondered how the first black hole was discovered? It was by X-ray astronomy that bought us across this concept. Black hole is a region of space time (the 4-dimensional conceptual model combining the three dimensions of space and the dimension of time) surrounding a point of infinite density, the singularity, where both space and time break down, where the space time defining that precise location would cease to exist. Around that point, in a region, bound by the event horizon, from which neither particles nor any form of electromagnetic radiation can escape. That breaks up your ears? As nothing can escape a black hole — not visible light, infrared light, microwaves or any other form of radiation — black holes are invisible. So astronomers have had to “observe” them by studying how they affect their surroundings. For example, black holes often form powerful, bright jets of gas and radiation that are visible to telescopes. Physicists can use the size of that jet to estimate the size of the black hole responsible for the jet.

Lots of theories are discovered about black hole yet more left to be discovered. But what astonished me is knowing that even black holes completely evaporate and disappear but they take so long as longer than current age of the Universe. Um! Sorry but may ne we won’t get any photos of this scenario .

Although black holes cannot be seen, we know they exist from the way they affect nearby dust, stars and galaxies. Many of them are surrounded by discs of material. As the discs swirl around them like a whirlpool, they become extremely hot and give off X-rays. They come in many different sizes. Many of them are only a few times more massive than the Sun. These ‘stellar-mass’ black holes form when a heavyweight star, about 10 times heavier than the Sun, ends its life in a supernova explosion. What is left of the star – still several solar masses – collapses into an area only a few kilometres across. Most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have ‘supermassive black holes’ at their centres. These may be millions or billions of times heavier than our Sun.

Supermassive black holes also power active galaxies and ancient galaxies known as quasars. Quasars may be hundreds of times brighter than even the largest ordinary galaxies. Objects that fall into black holes are literally stretched to breaking point. An astronaut who ventured too close and was sucked into a black hole would be pulled apart by the overpowering gravity. That sounds scary and creates one more stumbling block to keep the theories of black hole undiscovered.
A photograph launched in 2019 revealed some pieces of information of Black hole it does look like “ring of fire” surrounding a perfectly circular dark hole as I term it so. Interestingly, the bright halo is caused by superheated gas falling into the hole and made black hole kinda reddish that’s hilarious like black hole got a red colour as its new friend.

Let’s peep deeper, a black hole isn’t truly a hole. It’s quite the opposite. A black hole is a place in space containing an enormous amount of mass packed very tightly together. And it has the capacity to draw in more mass all the time. These objects have so much mass — and therefore gravity — that nothing can escape them, not even light. That makes them some of the most extreme objects in the universe. And they aren’t just massive, but also dense. Density is a measure of how tightly mass is packed into a space. Imagine a black hole the size of New York City. It would have as much mass and gravity as our sun. Most black holes form after a giant star, one at least 10 times as massive as our sun, runs out of fuel and collapses. The star shrinks and shrinks and shrinks. Eventually, it forms a tiny dark point. This is known as a stellar-mass black hole. Now much smaller than the star that made it, this black hole still has the same mass and gravity.

Our galaxy the Milky Way may have some 100 million such black holes. Astronomers estimate a new one forms every second. Note that small- and medium-sized stars, such as the sun, cannot form black holes. When they run out of fuel, they just become small, planet-sized objects called white dwarfs.

Actual photo of black hole

Apparently, how can be black holes detected? As studied above Black holes are characterised by their extremely strong gravity, that doesn’t allow even light to escape; as a result, black holes are invisible. However they can be detected if they have a close companion star. The gravity of the black hole pulls the gas from the other star. The gravity of the black hole pulls the gas from the other star, forming an accretion disc that spirals around the black hole at high speed, heating up and emitting radiation. Eventually, the matter spirals in to cross the horizon i.e the boundary of the black hole.

This article of BLACK HOLE is by Anushka Sharad, a teen girl, who finds Astrophysics as a fascinating career. These immensely dense and invisible denizens of our universe are also among the most extreme. Support and let us know your reviews to come up with more engrossing and captivating stuffs related to Space and its family, and we assure you will love’em all and y’all wouldn’t take your hands of it!

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The Creation Story

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The Creation Story
As Albert Einstein said, “The important thing is to never stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existence.” This curiosity leads us to many great ideas, innovations, and discoveries, basically everything we see around us. It raises many unanswered questions too. As our universe is very vast and old and keeps expanding further and faster. But we don’t know the exact reason behind the expansion. Astronomers suggest many possibilities but none could stand strong expect a few.
In ancient time astronomers thought the earth was the center of the universe but as they keep observing the things, they encounter many fascinating facts like earth and other planets revolve around the sun, our solar system is a part of the galaxy, and our galaxy is not the only galaxy that exists in the whole universe. So they end up on one question, HOW? How it all started? Many astronomers try to prove their theories about the origin but 4 theories make more sense than others.


1.Steady State Universe!
This theory was popular and nearly accepted back in the ’20s. According to this theory, the universe has no beginning and no end, it’s just there from always and remains forever. But as its constantly expanding; however the density (weight) of the universe remains constant.
This theory was proposed by James Jeans in 1920 but it got real fame in 1948 when Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi reformulated it. But as new observation and pieces of evidence were taking place, astronomers slowly started to oppose the theory. Like certain features or behavior of the distant galaxies weren’t seen in the nearer galaxies, and this makes sense about the birth of the universe.


2.Simulated Universe!?
This theory is a modern theory and quite an interesting one. Have you watch one of those movies which stories are related to a simulated world like Metrics, Inception, Ready Player One, etc. What if I tell you our whole universe might be a simulation game? Well, this theory is getting a hike due to a recent statement by our beloved Elon Musk the visionary guy. He said in his one interview that we might are be living in a simulation game controlled by higher dimensions. We just don’t feel it because we are programmed to do whatever we are doing right now. As we see the progress graph of video games, we are come from windows XP to virtual reality and augmented reality, these technologies are near to reality. Soon we’ll unable to spot the difference between reality and simulation. So maybe that’s the case with us too. Let us know what you think about it.


3.Big Bang Theory!!
When it comes to the creation of the universe the strongest theory that comes in our mind is The Big Bang Theory because it is widely popular and nearly accepted by everyone as it makes more sense about the origin. Well, this theory was suggested by a Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître in the 1920s. He said the universe began from a single atom which is existed from the very beginning. He called that atom cosmic egg. And from that cosmic egg universe expands to get as huge as it is now. Later in the 1930s, Edvin Hubble observed that other galaxies are moving away from each other which suggests back in time they all were very close to each other. Fun fact, Einstein opposed this theory because he believed that the universe was static, and due to that he introduced the term in his General Relativity Field equation called cosmological constant. This term was trying to prove that the cosmological constant holding a universe in a static state. But as Hubble and Lemaître jointly publish their observations and pieces of evidence regarding the Big Bang, Einstein kinda convinced and removed the cosmological constant from his equation. It was Einstein’s biggest blunder in physics. But as more observations have taken place and found pieces of evidence, this theory got special attention and started to opposing Steady-state theory.


Anyway, the theory suggests that at the very beginning there was nothing but a tiny atom with infinite temperature and density called Singularity, and suddenly it exploded and created the universe we know today. Scientists found out the evidence of the explosion as they detect CMB i.e. Cosmic Microwave Background. CMB is the electromagnetic radiations left from the early stage of the universe, also known as the image of a baby universe. It represents the heat leftover from Big Bang. Even if this theory makes complete sense about the creation but still there are a lot of flaws in this theory. Like it violets the 1st law of thermodynamics which says that matter and energy neither be created nor be destroyed. This law is opposing the big explosion that happened during the Big Bang. This is why this is not widely accepted.

4.Vedic Rashmi Theory
When I first hear about the theory, it got my attention and I became more curious about this theory because it has a background of Vedas. It is a recently introduced theory by Acharya Agnivrat Naishthik. Rashmi means the very first ray of light. This theory gives three causes to the formation of the universe.

  1. Efficient cause = Anything cannot be created without a creator. The creator is always needed.
  2. Material cause = Any created thing can never take form without basic materials.
  3. Normal cause = Any created thing always needs a purpose. Creation cannot occur without purpose.
    It is explaining three Gunas (qualities) as a form of creation is mass, force, and motion. But higher science spoken by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Geeta says,

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मन: |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ||

Meaning = ‘Subtle, they say, are the senses; subtler than the senses is the mind; subtler than the mind is the reason; but subtler even the reason is He (Atman—Supreme force)’
This means the highest thing is beyond all these things and in that state, one can know all the mysteries of the universe.

All the theories we discuss the creation of the universe are just THEORIES! when we practically prove any one of them it’ll become a law of the universe. As Carl Sagan said’ “Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known”. Let us know your thoughts on creation.

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REELS

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‘ABROAD’… The word itself lightens up everyone’s eyes. Within no time, you have been engrossed into your dreams. Towering glass buildings, clean broad roads, superfluous amenities, better transportation links and oh my goodness the list just becomes never ending!

It is observed now a days, many people travel abroad for getting better education, better job opportunities, or simply for a better standard of living and eventually tend to settle there. Now, it is always good to visit foreign places to know and learn about their development, their progress, their forwardness, but then one must get back to their origin. A cub, after his birth, tends to stay with a pride of lions for the rest of his life, and the same thing applies to most of the living beings. Have we ever seen elephants living with lions; crows living with eagles? The shear reason behind being that, they have a community of their own, they have similar abilities, similar thinking, similar adaptability. If a panda is lifted up and placed in Africa, it will not survive, if not for the artificial atmosphere.

Evolution has given humans intelligence based on which we can make decision, but that does not mean we become unbounded. We took birth in an certain atmosphere and we tend to develop physically,mentally and emotionally according to that. How can we just let go all the adaption suddenly and start afresh? It might not be impossible but it is not advisable.

Indians who move out and settle abroad, never understand that their life has become surreal. They tend to speak negative about their own native land, the land that made them and brought them up with so much of affection. Yes, India might not have those beautiful skylines, the cleanliness, those job opportunities, those breathtaking city views, that level of infrastructure and development. But the fact that we can’t avoid is: The first world countries are who they are today because of the third world countries. It is heartbreaking to see that the people get deluded in the external beauty and forget the true essence of the life India gave them.

The facts are so very infront of us still we act preposterously like for example, have you ever seen a foreigner settling in India for a life time? And now try to don’t defend yourself by saying that India is not that developed but does it have nothing else to offer? Have you ever seen or heard of any country that has soo much diversity, festivals, traditions or culture? Their behaviour seems to be so funny at times! You are born in an country and have been granted citizenship for as long as you live. But no! We will go to foreign countries, spend countless dollar bills and beg them to make us citizens of their country as though we are homeless orphans! There are 100s of people in our country who are showering you with excessive love,care and affection, but no! We will go abroad and then search if somebody can love us and care for us.

These abroad settlers seem to be cowards. They do not have the guts to face and solve the problems their native land is having. THEY SIMPLY RUN! They actually run from the capabilities of themselves they are unaware about. Staying in utopia and showing yourself to be successful is very easy. Rising and shining from dust inspite of the most rigorous situations is real success. A person who thinks much about his nuclear development is not a true genius; but the one who helps his clan to walk on the path of development, surely is! What India wants its people to do is learn, get better and get back to her, make her what she really deserves to be; not just leave her be in the condition first world countries have made out of her. You owe this to her and the people who made it possible for you to fly at the heights you are flying. Do what you have to do but never forget your roots!

The solution is actually very easy. We must think before we leap; But we, just dream!

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DIVERSION : from BLOOD to FLOOD

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This is the story of Vadodara or any other province, that the water have entered in the heart of the city. Vishwamitri river a well known river which is going through Vadodara city and is filled with human waste and is also currently the most dirtiest river. Many other rivers in different cities have been cleaned automatically by the force of nature during the lockdown in this Corona Pandemic. But the question here is the cleanliness of the river and the Vishwamitri have not been cleaned 1% also. The reason behind is the roads and areas around the river the levels of the river goes up with a little rain because of the encroachments done around the banks of the river. The planning of the town was done in wrong way and was planned on the river and it is also said that the river is not flowing in through the city, but the city is interrupting the way of the river. This is a serious issue faced by the resident. This news of floods in different areas have made people forgot the dangerous virus and the TV forgot it too. Slowly the effect of the virus have been washed out. People are now getting immune to this system and the Plasma donors have also increased. So by that we can say that the power of the virus have decreased. In the current scenario the severe and straight attention of the people and authorities is on the water levels and rising problems of the people due to the water penetrating in their houses. Going back to the origin, The Vishwamitri river originates from the pure hills of Pavagadh. This river flows from the west of Vadodara city. Till now the banks of Vishwamitri have served many of the people before and before than that too and is also serving the people. The river from the origin is wide but when it enters the city it gets narrow. This is the reason why the water levels rise in the river. Many societies have serious problems with the Crocs because when the water enters in their societies then they never know how many Crocs have been there with the flow of water. The name of the river is said to be by the name of a Saint Vishwamitra and as this river has a name of a Saint then it should be pure like the Saint. Now the focus is on eliminating the encroachments and by making broader, increasing the volume of the river. With the rising Corona cases it is also necessary to take care of many other diseases that can be caused by this water and the gutters are also a big problem here the water mix up and all… The word, Corona now a days is now somewhere hidden underground in the masks of the people and been submerged in the floods. So we can clearly say that now there is a DIVERSION from BLOOD to FLOOD…..

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