The idea of Hawking radiation was given by Stephen. W Hawking a gifted theoretical physicist. The entropy of a black hole and Hawking radiation should have the same temperature given by the surface gravity, within a numerical factor of the order of unity.
In addition, Hawking radiation should have a thermal spectrum, which creates an information paradox However, the thermality should be limited by grey body factors at the very least. It has been proposed that the physics of Hawking radiation could be verified in an analogue system an idea that has been carefully studied and developed theoretically Classical white-hole analogues have been investigated experimental, and other analogue systems have been presented. Hawking radiation, Radiation theoretically emitted from just outside the horizon of a black hole.
Allowing us to predict that some particles can indeed escape a blackhole. Now, a blackhole is not black at all but glows with heat radiation. The subatomic particle pairs (photons, neutrinos, and some massive particles) arising naturally near the event horizon may result in one particle’s escaping the vicinity of the black hole while the other particle, of negative energy disappears into it. The steady emission of heat energy causes the black hole to lose mass which over time leads to the blackhole to vanish which results from a final burst of radiation which occurs from a spectacular explosion. So, first a star itself vanishes and then the blackhole itself vanishes.
Which is in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics which states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time, and is constant if and only if all processes are reversible. Isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium, the state with maximum Entropy.
Why should black holes glow?
Whenever matter enters a black hole, it is effectively locked away from the rest of the Universe. This also removes a measure of disorder; a characteristic physicists call entropy.
Since this removal of matter leaves the Universe less disordered, it was thought to break the second law of thermodynamics.
A physics student from Princeton in the US named Jacob Bekenstein pointed out that the boundary surrounding the space most affected by a black hole’s insane gravity – a ‘surface’ called an event horizon – should increase in area whenever matter falls in.
He showed how this area represents the measure of entropy that would otherwise be lost, a suggestion that should solve the paradox.
Hawking wasn’t so sure. Entropy is another way of describing heat energy, which necessarily emits radiation. If an event horizon has entropy, it should glow in some way, meaning black holes wouldn’t be so black after all.
In his efforts to disprove Bekenstein’s seemingly absurd suggestion, Hawking discussed it with other physicists and attempted to show using mathematical models it wasn’t possible.
Instead, he discovered black holes really do seem to shine with cold light.
The Boundary Conditions of the Universe
The questions of what the boundary conditions of thy universe are and where they should be imposed are considered. It is suggested that the Euclidean approach be adopted and that the path integral for quantum gravity be evaluated over positive definite metrics. If these metrics are taken to be compact, the need to specify any boundary conditions for the universe would be avoided. The Euclidean aimed at determining the shape of the Universe through the approach of Euclid. There are two inter related questions to this approach first being the geometry: the fine-grained local measurements of things like angles and areas. The other is about its topology: how these local pieces are stitched into an overarching shape.
Cosmological evidence suggests that the part of the universe we can see is smooth and homogenous, at least approximately.
Ever since the dawn of civilisation people have craved for the understanding of the underlined order of the world. According to Professor Stephen Hawking there ought to be something very special about the boundary conditions of the Universe.
And what can be more special than the fact that there is no boundary of the Universe. Similarly, there should be no boundary to human endeavour. We all are different like the sub atomic particles. However bad life may seem there is always something one can do and succeed at while there’s life there is hope
The Creation Story
The Creation Story
As Albert Einstein said, “The important thing is to never stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existence.” This curiosity leads us to many great ideas, innovations, and discoveries, basically everything we see around us. It raises many unanswered questions too. As our universe is very vast and old and keeps expanding further and faster. But we don’t know the exact reason behind the expansion. Astronomers suggest many possibilities but none could stand strong expect a few.
In ancient time astronomers thought the earth was the center of the universe but as they keep observing the things, they encounter many fascinating facts like earth and other planets revolve around the sun, our solar system is a part of the galaxy, and our galaxy is not the only galaxy that exists in the whole universe. So they end up on one question, HOW? How it all started? Many astronomers try to prove their theories about the origin but 4 theories make more sense than others.
1.Steady State Universe!
This theory was popular and nearly accepted back in the ’20s. According to this theory, the universe has no beginning and no end, it’s just there from always and remains forever. But as its constantly expanding; however the density (weight) of the universe remains constant.
This theory was proposed by James Jeans in 1920 but it got real fame in 1948 when Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi reformulated it. But as new observation and pieces of evidence were taking place, astronomers slowly started to oppose the theory. Like certain features or behavior of the distant galaxies weren’t seen in the nearer galaxies, and this makes sense about the birth of the universe.
This theory is a modern theory and quite an interesting one. Have you watch one of those movies which stories are related to a simulated world like Metrics, Inception, Ready Player One, etc. What if I tell you our whole universe might be a simulation game? Well, this theory is getting a hike due to a recent statement by our beloved Elon Musk the visionary guy. He said in his one interview that we might are be living in a simulation game controlled by higher dimensions. We just don’t feel it because we are programmed to do whatever we are doing right now. As we see the progress graph of video games, we are come from windows XP to virtual reality and augmented reality, these technologies are near to reality. Soon we’ll unable to spot the difference between reality and simulation. So maybe that’s the case with us too. Let us know what you think about it.
3.Big Bang Theory!!
When it comes to the creation of the universe the strongest theory that comes in our mind is The Big Bang Theory because it is widely popular and nearly accepted by everyone as it makes more sense about the origin. Well, this theory was suggested by a Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître in the 1920s. He said the universe began from a single atom which is existed from the very beginning. He called that atom cosmic egg. And from that cosmic egg universe expands to get as huge as it is now. Later in the 1930s, Edvin Hubble observed that other galaxies are moving away from each other which suggests back in time they all were very close to each other. Fun fact, Einstein opposed this theory because he believed that the universe was static, and due to that he introduced the term in his General Relativity Field equation called cosmological constant. This term was trying to prove that the cosmological constant holding a universe in a static state. But as Hubble and Lemaître jointly publish their observations and pieces of evidence regarding the Big Bang, Einstein kinda convinced and removed the cosmological constant from his equation. It was Einstein’s biggest blunder in physics. But as more observations have taken place and found pieces of evidence, this theory got special attention and started to opposing Steady-state theory.
Anyway, the theory suggests that at the very beginning there was nothing but a tiny atom with infinite temperature and density called Singularity, and suddenly it exploded and created the universe we know today. Scientists found out the evidence of the explosion as they detect CMB i.e. Cosmic Microwave Background. CMB is the electromagnetic radiations left from the early stage of the universe, also known as the image of a baby universe. It represents the heat leftover from Big Bang. Even if this theory makes complete sense about the creation but still there are a lot of flaws in this theory. Like it violets the 1st law of thermodynamics which says that matter and energy neither be created nor be destroyed. This law is opposing the big explosion that happened during the Big Bang. This is why this is not widely accepted.
4.Vedic Rashmi Theory
When I first hear about the theory, it got my attention and I became more curious about this theory because it has a background of Vedas. It is a recently introduced theory by Acharya Agnivrat Naishthik. Rashmi means the very first ray of light. This theory gives three causes to the formation of the universe.
- Efficient cause = Anything cannot be created without a creator. The creator is always needed.
- Material cause = Any created thing can never take form without basic materials.
- Normal cause = Any created thing always needs a purpose. Creation cannot occur without purpose.
It is explaining three Gunas (qualities) as a form of creation is mass, force, and motion. But higher science spoken by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Geeta says,
इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मन: |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ||
Meaning = ‘Subtle, they say, are the senses; subtler than the senses is the mind; subtler than the mind is the reason; but subtler even the reason is He (Atman—Supreme force)’
This means the highest thing is beyond all these things and in that state, one can know all the mysteries of the universe.
All the theories we discuss the creation of the universe are just THEORIES! when we practically prove any one of them it’ll become a law of the universe. As Carl Sagan said’ “Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known”. Let us know your thoughts on creation.
‘ABROAD’… The word itself lightens up everyone’s eyes. Within no time, you have been engrossed into your dreams. Towering glass buildings, clean broad roads, superfluous amenities, better transportation links and oh my goodness the list just becomes never ending!
It is observed now a days, many people travel abroad for getting better education, better job opportunities, or simply for a better standard of living and eventually tend to settle there. Now, it is always good to visit foreign places to know and learn about their development, their progress, their forwardness, but then one must get back to their origin. A cub, after his birth, tends to stay with a pride of lions for the rest of his life, and the same thing applies to most of the living beings. Have we ever seen elephants living with lions; crows living with eagles? The shear reason behind being that, they have a community of their own, they have similar abilities, similar thinking, similar adaptability. If a panda is lifted up and placed in Africa, it will not survive, if not for the artificial atmosphere.
Evolution has given humans intelligence based on which we can make decision, but that does not mean we become unbounded. We took birth in an certain atmosphere and we tend to develop physically,mentally and emotionally according to that. How can we just let go all the adaption suddenly and start afresh? It might not be impossible but it is not advisable.
Indians who move out and settle abroad, never understand that their life has become surreal. They tend to speak negative about their own native land, the land that made them and brought them up with so much of affection. Yes, India might not have those beautiful skylines, the cleanliness, those job opportunities, those breathtaking city views, that level of infrastructure and development. But the fact that we can’t avoid is: The first world countries are who they are today because of the third world countries. It is heartbreaking to see that the people get deluded in the external beauty and forget the true essence of the life India gave them.
The facts are so very infront of us still we act preposterously like for example, have you ever seen a foreigner settling in India for a life time? And now try to don’t defend yourself by saying that India is not that developed but does it have nothing else to offer? Have you ever seen or heard of any country that has soo much diversity, festivals, traditions or culture? Their behaviour seems to be so funny at times! You are born in an country and have been granted citizenship for as long as you live. But no! We will go to foreign countries, spend countless dollar bills and beg them to make us citizens of their country as though we are homeless orphans! There are 100s of people in our country who are showering you with excessive love,care and affection, but no! We will go abroad and then search if somebody can love us and care for us.
These abroad settlers seem to be cowards. They do not have the guts to face and solve the problems their native land is having. THEY SIMPLY RUN! They actually run from the capabilities of themselves they are unaware about. Staying in utopia and showing yourself to be successful is very easy. Rising and shining from dust inspite of the most rigorous situations is real success. A person who thinks much about his nuclear development is not a true genius; but the one who helps his clan to walk on the path of development, surely is! What India wants its people to do is learn, get better and get back to her, make her what she really deserves to be; not just leave her be in the condition first world countries have made out of her. You owe this to her and the people who made it possible for you to fly at the heights you are flying. Do what you have to do but never forget your roots!
The solution is actually very easy. We must think before we leap; But we, just dream!
DIVERSION : from BLOOD to FLOOD
This is the story of Vadodara or any other province, that the water have entered in the heart of the city. Vishwamitri river a well known river which is going through Vadodara city and is filled with human waste and is also currently the most dirtiest river. Many other rivers in different cities have been cleaned automatically by the force of nature during the lockdown in this Corona Pandemic. But the question here is the cleanliness of the river and the Vishwamitri have not been cleaned 1% also. The reason behind is the roads and areas around the river the levels of the river goes up with a little rain because of the encroachments done around the banks of the river. The planning of the town was done in wrong way and was planned on the river and it is also said that the river is not flowing in through the city, but the city is interrupting the way of the river. This is a serious issue faced by the resident. This news of floods in different areas have made people forgot the dangerous virus and the TV forgot it too. Slowly the effect of the virus have been washed out. People are now getting immune to this system and the Plasma donors have also increased. So by that we can say that the power of the virus have decreased. In the current scenario the severe and straight attention of the people and authorities is on the water levels and rising problems of the people due to the water penetrating in their houses. Going back to the origin, The Vishwamitri river originates from the pure hills of Pavagadh. This river flows from the west of Vadodara city. Till now the banks of Vishwamitri have served many of the people before and before than that too and is also serving the people. The river from the origin is wide but when it enters the city it gets narrow. This is the reason why the water levels rise in the river. Many societies have serious problems with the Crocs because when the water enters in their societies then they never know how many Crocs have been there with the flow of water. The name of the river is said to be by the name of a Saint Vishwamitra and as this river has a name of a Saint then it should be pure like the Saint. Now the focus is on eliminating the encroachments and by making broader, increasing the volume of the river. With the rising Corona cases it is also necessary to take care of many other diseases that can be caused by this water and the gutters are also a big problem here the water mix up and all… The word, Corona now a days is now somewhere hidden underground in the masks of the people and been submerged in the floods. So we can clearly say that now there is a DIVERSION from BLOOD to FLOOD…..
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