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THE BEGINNING OF TIME

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When we look at the Universe today, we know with an extraordinary amount of scientific certainty that it wasn’t simply created as-is, but evolved to its present configuration over billions of years of cosmic history. We can use what we see today, both nearby and at great distances, to extrapolate what the Universe was like a long time ago, and to understand how it came to be the way it is now.
When we think about our cosmic origins, then, it’s only human to ask the most fundamental of all possible questions: where did this all come from? It’s been more than half a century since the first robust and unique predictions of the Big Bang were confirmed, leading to our modern picture of a Universe that began from a hot, dense state some 13.8 billion years ago. But in our quest for the beginning, we know already that time couldn’t have started with the Big Bang. In fact, it might not have had a beginning at all.

The esteemed theoretical physicist Stephen W Hawking was among the first physicist to proposed that time had a beginning this was Hawking’s PhD thesis at Cambridge and also the foundation stone for his acclaimed book A Brief History of Time.
One of his observations are as follows which he stated at a lecture that whether time itself, has a beginning, and whether it will have an end. All the evidence seems to indicate, that the universe has not existed for ever, but that it had a beginning, about 15 billion years ago. This is probably the most remarkable discovery of modern cosmology.

The time scale of the universe, is very long compared to that for human life. It was therefore not surprising that until recently, the universe was thought to be essentially static, and unchanging in time. On the other hand, it must have been obvious, that society is evolving in culture and technology. This indicates that the present phase of human history, can not have been going for more than a few thousand years. Otherwise, we would be more advanced than we are. It was therefore natural to believe that the human race, and maybe the whole universe, had a beginning in the fairly recent past. However, many people were unhappy with the idea that the universe had a beginning, because it seemed to imply the existence of a supernatural being, who created the universe.

They prefered to believe that the universe, and the human race, had existed for ever. Their explanation for human progress, was that there had been periodic floods, or other natural disasters, which repeatedly set back the human race to a primitive state.
This argument about whether or not the universe had a beginning, persisted into the 19th and 20th centuries. It was conducted mainly on the basis of theology and philosophy, with little consideration of observational evidence. This may have been reasonable, given the notoriously unreliable character of cosmological observations, until fairly recently. The cosmologist, Sir Arthur Eddington, once said: Don’t worry if your theory doesn’t agree with the observations, because they are probably wrong. But if your theory disagrees with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, it is in bad trouble. In fact, the theory that the universe has existed forever, is in serious difficulty with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law, states that disorder always increases with time. Like the argument about human progress, it indicates that there must have been a beginning. Otherwise, the universe would be in a state of complete disorder by now, and everything would be at the same temperature. In an infinite and everlasting universe, every line of sight would end on the surface of a star. This would mean that the night sky, would have been as bright as the surface of the Sun. The only way of avoiding this problem, would be if for some reason, the stars did not shine before a certain time.

When applying Einstein’s general relativity theory, the Universe has always been expanding. If one is able to reverse the process all the way back one may know what happened at the beginning of time which till date has been a challenge for all physicists specialised in cosmology.
The concept of star and spacetime singularity is the closest that all the scientist world over have reached. Eminent mathematical physicist Roger Penrose has stated Star is more than three times the size of our Sun, ought to end its life how? With a collapse. The gravitational forces of the entire mass overcoming the electromagnetic forces of individual atoms, and so collapsing inwards. If the star is massive enough, it will continue this collapse, creating a black hole, where the warping of spacetime is so great that nothing can escape. Not even light. It gets smaller, smaller, the star in fact gets denser as atoms, even subatomic particles, get literally crushed into smaller and smaller space. And at its end point, what are we left with? A spacetime singularity in which both space and time come to a stop.
Stephen Hawking applied this theory of Penrose based on blackholes on the entire Universe which led to the popular consensus of the Universe being born from a blackhole exploding

Meanwhile only time will be able to tell if it had a beginning. Until then we should always try to learn something new like the universe is constantly expanding similarly the world is constantly progressing So we should always try to acquire and develop new qualities otherwise we might end up being like the spacetime singularity and find ourselves outdated then we may be incapable of living in this progressing world. Gone are the days of the survival of the fittest now it is the trend of survival of being the learnerst that is only the one will be able to survive this progressing world who is able to learn the most.

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Dyson Sphere and Solar Power: The Future of Human Civilization

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In future, when human civilization will colonize other planets in the solar system we will require ungodly amount of energy and we can it get it through our Star ‘Sun’. Yes, Sun is the ultimate source of energy. It is 100 quintillion times more powerful than our nuclear reactor. It shines with the energy of a trillion nuclear bombs per second.

So, do you know how can we get its whole energy? Not some of it, as we get through solar panels! For getting its whole energy we’ll have to build a mega structure called as ‘Dyson Sphere’.

Currently, we are slowly moving towards renewable energy and if human civilization doesn’t get destroyed due to our own petty politics or due to nature, we’ll be able to create a ‘Dyson sphere’.

It is a cosmic and hypothetical mega structure known as ‘Dyson sphere’. This Dyson Sphere has power to consume the total energy of Sun.

So,what woud it look like?

A solid shell enveloping the Sun is probably not the way to go. A large rigid body like that would be vulnerable to impact. Possibly it would be liable to drift and could also crash straight into the Sun. A practicable design for this mega structure can be a ‘Dyson Swarm’.

Dyson swarm is an enormous set of many orbiting panels that collects the Sun’s power and beam it to any other place.

Such thing will give humanity unlimited source of energy. But have you ever thought why we still didn’t make it? Sun holds 99.8% of the solar system’s mass and if we compare Earth to Sun, Sun is 109 times the diameter of Earth. So we would need many satellites for it. Suppose size of each satellite is 1 sq.km we’d need around 30 quadrillion for surrounding the mighty Sun!

Like this

Also we need the energy to actually put the parts together and also to deliver them to their specific positions around the Sun. So, currently its impossible for humans to make ‘Dyson sphere’.

This mega structure has its mini version.

Yes this structure is mini version of Dyson Sphere. (This structure also isn’t made by humans still but after 200 or 300 years we can make this structure) As satellite orbits the Earth, this structure will also orbit the Earth and they will absorb Sun’s energy. As satellite sends us signal in the way it will send us solar energy and looking at the speed of human’s advancement in technology approximately after 100 or 200 years such satellite will be orbiting our Earth and this will be our need in future because at that time we’ll lose most of the energy sources like Petrol, Diesel, Coal, etc. present here on Earth and also it will help us to get energy on other planet too!
This mini version of Dyson Sphere has its mini version too! and the good thing is it is made by humans!!!

This is it

This is it ‘Solar Panels’ a device which can transform some of the sun’s heat energy into our electricity and this Solar Panels which you seeing now aren’t just Solar Panels they will be our necessity in our future.
In the end I would like to say that human civilization will be totally depended for energy sources on these structures.

Hope you have found this interesting!

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The Creation Story

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The Creation Story
As Albert Einstein said, “The important thing is to never stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existence.” This curiosity leads us to many great ideas, innovations, and discoveries, basically everything we see around us. It raises many unanswered questions too. As our universe is very vast and old and keeps expanding further and faster. But we don’t know the exact reason behind the expansion. Astronomers suggest many possibilities but none could stand strong expect a few.
In ancient time astronomers thought the earth was the center of the universe but as they keep observing the things, they encounter many fascinating facts like earth and other planets revolve around the sun, our solar system is a part of the galaxy, and our galaxy is not the only galaxy that exists in the whole universe. So they end up on one question, HOW? How it all started? Many astronomers try to prove their theories about the origin but 4 theories make more sense than others.


1.Steady State Universe!
This theory was popular and nearly accepted back in the ’20s. According to this theory, the universe has no beginning and no end, it’s just there from always and remains forever. But as its constantly expanding; however the density (weight) of the universe remains constant.
This theory was proposed by James Jeans in 1920 but it got real fame in 1948 when Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi reformulated it. But as new observation and pieces of evidence were taking place, astronomers slowly started to oppose the theory. Like certain features or behavior of the distant galaxies weren’t seen in the nearer galaxies, and this makes sense about the birth of the universe.


2.Simulated Universe!?
This theory is a modern theory and quite an interesting one. Have you watch one of those movies which stories are related to a simulated world like Metrics, Inception, Ready Player One, etc. What if I tell you our whole universe might be a simulation game? Well, this theory is getting a hike due to a recent statement by our beloved Elon Musk the visionary guy. He said in his one interview that we might are be living in a simulation game controlled by higher dimensions. We just don’t feel it because we are programmed to do whatever we are doing right now. As we see the progress graph of video games, we are come from windows XP to virtual reality and augmented reality, these technologies are near to reality. Soon we’ll unable to spot the difference between reality and simulation. So maybe that’s the case with us too. Let us know what you think about it.


3.Big Bang Theory!!
When it comes to the creation of the universe the strongest theory that comes in our mind is The Big Bang Theory because it is widely popular and nearly accepted by everyone as it makes more sense about the origin. Well, this theory was suggested by a Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître in the 1920s. He said the universe began from a single atom which is existed from the very beginning. He called that atom cosmic egg. And from that cosmic egg universe expands to get as huge as it is now. Later in the 1930s, Edvin Hubble observed that other galaxies are moving away from each other which suggests back in time they all were very close to each other. Fun fact, Einstein opposed this theory because he believed that the universe was static, and due to that he introduced the term in his General Relativity Field equation called cosmological constant. This term was trying to prove that the cosmological constant holding a universe in a static state. But as Hubble and Lemaître jointly publish their observations and pieces of evidence regarding the Big Bang, Einstein kinda convinced and removed the cosmological constant from his equation. It was Einstein’s biggest blunder in physics. But as more observations have taken place and found pieces of evidence, this theory got special attention and started to opposing Steady-state theory.


Anyway, the theory suggests that at the very beginning there was nothing but a tiny atom with infinite temperature and density called Singularity, and suddenly it exploded and created the universe we know today. Scientists found out the evidence of the explosion as they detect CMB i.e. Cosmic Microwave Background. CMB is the electromagnetic radiations left from the early stage of the universe, also known as the image of a baby universe. It represents the heat leftover from Big Bang. Even if this theory makes complete sense about the creation but still there are a lot of flaws in this theory. Like it violets the 1st law of thermodynamics which says that matter and energy neither be created nor be destroyed. This law is opposing the big explosion that happened during the Big Bang. This is why this is not widely accepted.

4.Vedic Rashmi Theory
When I first hear about the theory, it got my attention and I became more curious about this theory because it has a background of Vedas. It is a recently introduced theory by Acharya Agnivrat Naishthik. Rashmi means the very first ray of light. This theory gives three causes to the formation of the universe.

  1. Efficient cause = Anything cannot be created without a creator. The creator is always needed.
  2. Material cause = Any created thing can never take form without basic materials.
  3. Normal cause = Any created thing always needs a purpose. Creation cannot occur without purpose.
    It is explaining three Gunas (qualities) as a form of creation is mass, force, and motion. But higher science spoken by Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Geeta says,

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मन: |
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ||

Meaning = ‘Subtle, they say, are the senses; subtler than the senses is the mind; subtler than the mind is the reason; but subtler even the reason is He (Atman—Supreme force)’
This means the highest thing is beyond all these things and in that state, one can know all the mysteries of the universe.

All the theories we discuss the creation of the universe are just THEORIES! when we practically prove any one of them it’ll become a law of the universe. As Carl Sagan said’ “Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known”. Let us know your thoughts on creation.

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