India’s primary occupation is Agriculture and there have been many reforms before and after independence in the field of agriculture. Farmers are our food lords and it is the most hardworking industry in India. Recently on 20th September, 2020 Parliament passed The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, 2020 and The Farmers Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020.
These two bills aimed at bringing transformation in the field of Agriculture and raising the income of the farmers.
The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, 2020 :
Provisions in the Bill:
1. The new legislation will create an ecosystem where the farmers and traders will enjoy freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agri-produce.
2. It will also promote barrier-free inter-state and intra-state trade and commerce outside the physical premises of markets notified under State Agricultural Produce Marketing legislations.
3. The Bill also proposes an electronic trading in transaction platform for ensuring a seamless trade electronically. In addition to mandis, freedom to do trading at farm gate, cold storage, warehouse, processing units etc.
4. Farmers will now get the benefits of direct trade and hence eliminating the intermediates resulting in full realising of price.
1. Procurement at Minimum Support Prices (MSP) will stop.
2. It has been a major doubt that if the goods will be sold outside the APMC than the mandis will stop functioning.
The Farmers Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020:
Provisions in the Bill:
1. The new legislation will empower farmers for engaging with processors, wholesalers, aggregators, wholesalers, large retailers, exporters etc., on a level playing field. Price assurance to farmers even before sowing of crops. In case of higher market price, farmers will be entitled to this price over and above the minimum price.
2. It will transfer the risk of market unpredictability from the farmer to the sponsor. Due to prior price determination, farmers will be shielded from the rise and fall of market prices.
3. It will also enable the farmer to access modern technology, better seed and other inputs.
4. It will reduce cost of marketing and improve income of farmers.
5. Impetus to research and new technology in agriculture sector.
1. Under contract farming, farmers will be under pressure and they will not be able to determine prices.
2. How will small farmers be able to practice contract farming, sponsors will shy away from them.
3. The new system will be a problem for farmers.
4. In case of dispute, big companies will be at an advantage.
After reading the above information the reader will understand that the bill that are passed are useless and there are no Clarification or Positive Impacts of this bill on the farmers. If observed on the above given negative impacts, it is clear that the farmers that are protesting since November 26, 2020 are in the fear of getting isolated in their own land and the whole farming process and then selling the crops will be in danger. The protests are not because thousands of farmers commit suicide every year, but to protect the flow that is going smoothly in the farming system.
Lacs of farmers and the organizations that are supporting the protest have made their tent at the border of the National capital, Delhi. Taking back the bill and cancelling the changes made in the system is the only solution to stop this protest. Internationally also there have been a greater support to the protest against the farmers act, 2020.
APMC is the best way to regulate the flow of the commodities of the farmers and the farmers are happy to take the help of the middleman because the middleman gives them the provision of flexible prices and the farmers are therefore not bounded to the prices. According to the new bill these middleman will be excluded and hence the farmers will lose control over the price regulation. Second problem is the APMC. APMC are excluded in the new bill and there will be trade outside the APMC, so they have fear of Shutting the Mandis. Mainly the farmers of the states Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are upset with this Act.
In this protest against the farmers act not a single religion is targeted and all the religion combined with each other and supporting one another are there to keep going this protest. At the time of CAA and NRC, when the Muslims were backed out then the Sikhs helped them out by organizing langar at various places. So now the position of the farmers is at danger, by giving in return The Langar will go on 24×7 till the protest continues , said the team of Muslim Federation of Punjab.
This is a team of 25 members who are Muslim men been serving the Langar since Wednesday to the Farmers protesting at Delhi’s Singhu border. The team of the Muslim Federation of Punjab is led by Faaroqi Mubin, said that, “They have arrived at Singhu border to feed the farmers who have feed everyone”.
The hopes of these protesting Farmers were crushed when the fifth round of talks failed on 5th December and not taking their demand into consideration. The result is they will not fall back but will fight and keep the protest continue. Some of the Aspect are untold of this protest and this is very vulnerable to the society and for the people living in the society.
FARMER BILL 2020, right or wrong ?
Farmer bill 2020 was passed on 17th September in Lok Sabha further, which left the farmers and opposition leaders infuriated
The farmer’s protest, the biggest the country has experienced in the past few years, it was intensified over the few days.
Thousands of farmers have made their way into the national capital and continue to raise voice for their demands
What does the bill say?
The bill claims to facilitate the substantial cause of farmers; Earlier farmers were obliged to sell their produce to government-regulated markets, or mandis, this bill aims to end the monopoly of APMC and inaugurate a free and capitalistic market.
These bills also enable the private organizations’ individuals to hoard essential commodities and produces, earlier only governmental bodies possessed the capability to do so: it even certified several rules for contract farming.
Another essential effect is going to be escorted by free markets which would end the state barriers and allow farmers to their produce to private organizations/individuals in any part of the country; earlier farmers were forced to sell their products within the state .
On paper these bills seem to be beneficial for the farmers, right ?
So , why are farmers protesting ?
1. Death of federalism : –
Considering the fact, Federalism is practiced in our nations and perhaps agriculture and markets are state subjects, the violates the principle of federalism, connotating the fact that it directly violates the Indian constitution.
2. End of MSPs :-
The Farmer’s produce trade and commerce ordinance aims at digressing the agriculture market from Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis for farmers, and even forbids any state government from assembling any kind of fees, levy, or cess originating from farmer or agricultural associates.
APMC was inaugurated to accomplish fair trade between buyers and sellers, APMC even possessed the capability to regulate the trade of farmers by presenting market fees or any other charges on trade, introducing a minimum cost for each commodity (MSP), assisting farmers to increase their production by providing them with adequate infrastructure.
The argument is justified because of the interpretation; dissolving these APMC would abolish minimum support prices.
3. Fluctuating prices :-
This bill fails to provide any mechanism for price fixations ; transferring the discretion of price into the hands of private, leaving the farmers in the hand of private player’s goodwill .
4. Denationalization of Edible commodities :-
The amendment in the bill abdicates cereals , pulses , oilseeds, edible oils , onion, and potatoes from the category of substantial commodities , the central government acquires the rights of regulating of supply during the war , famine , extraordinary price rise, and natural calamity .
The new bill says that , a stock limit may be imposed only if there is a 100% increase in retail price .
5. Jeopardization of food quality :-
The easing of regulation of food items could lead to a neglect in the quality of the crop as it would direct farmers , processors, or other agricultural associates to produce during the harvest season ; when prices are lower , and emancipating them when prices increases . It is being anticipated that this could resort to undermining food quality .
What is the governments response ?
At present several meetings have been held between government and representatives of farmers since November, but the government has rejected farmer’s demand of withdrawl of the 3 laws.
The farmers fear that laws passed in September, will deregulate the prices and obliterate their earnings. They even fear that these laws completely jettison’s the MSP(Minimum Support Prices) but the on the contrary side government has assured the farmers that they will continue the existence of Minimum support prices.
PM Modi have and his allies have insisted that these reforms will facilitate the condition sof farmers. he said that these reforms will allow farmers to market their produce and boost production through private investment.
In my opinion the government should comprehend and act upon the demands raised by farmers regarding the MSP’s, APMC’s and hinderances by the corporate players.
Although there have been verbal assurance given by the government that they will continue to provide MSP’s, but there is a necessity of a written assurance which covers all the demands raised by the farmers.
Upcoming events of 2021
We all will unanimously agree to the fact that 2020 has not done any good instead,has been one of the most devastating year for all of us.2020 was an end to a decade and was supposed to be as happening and grand as any other year.But,this year reversed it all—a year which will be unanimously remembered by all of us for it’s doings.Contrary to all the cons,this year has many good things that can be counted up on.For some,it turned out to be year which made us value things,value human touch,value time—the most important of all.It made us do things which we never imagined doing guiltlessly like making a Dalgona coffee with failed attempts initially but getting up again and with great courage executing it successfully.Also,binge watching television series or movies all day long with our loved ones or even baking a cake without any special day or event because we can celebrate each day if we are happy and content with life.We all,one day or the other might have learned recipes off the internet—dadi or nani ke haato ka khana.It should be awarded as the best dishes because of the love and affection we get out of it and also because it tastes heavenly.2020 cannot be undone but it can also never ever be erased by anyone of us who were a part of this roller coaster journey of a lifetime.
2021 is at its advent—one last month and we shall welcome a new,fresh and probably a positive year.Let us all hope and pray that this new year would grant us all the happiness, success and patience to deal with all our personal battle.As taught by 2020 we should stop taking things for granted and value them and also stop questioning ourselves and on our capabilities.2021 gladly has many new things to offer and to which we can look about.Here is a list of 20 things coming up in this new year:
1.The Olympic Games are held on the summer of 2021 in Tokyo,Japan.
2.India’s first manned spaced flight to independently launch humans into space.
3.COVAXIN,Covid-19 vaccine,could be lunched as early as July 2021.
4. Upcoming bollywood movies in 2021:
* Bachan Pandey starring Kriti Sanon and Akshay Kumar.
* Ek Villian 2 starring Ajay Devgan and Alia Bhatt.
* Sardar Udham Singh starring Vicky Kaushal.
* Shabaash Mithu starring Tapsee Pannu.
5. NASA’s Perseverance rover lands on Mars.
6. Oscars 2021 will not be a virtual affair,to take place on 25 April.
7. Kazakhstan President to visit India in 2021.
8. India invites UK PM Boris Johnson as chief guest for 2021 Republic Day Parade.
9.Nirav Modi’s remand extended in UK,final hearing in 2021.
10.India’s GDP could rebound to 7.9% in 2021 says OECD(The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development).
11. Government bans Non-ISI Helmets from June 1,2021.
12.India’s 2021 T20 World Cup maybe shifted to UAE.
13. Sayani Gupta starrer ‘Shameless’ is selected as India’s entry to the Oscar’s 2021 in the short film category.
14. Air Asia India plans expansion;to induct 3 more A320 neons by June 2021.
15.The first crewless flight as ISRO as part of the ambitious Gaganyaan Project will now happen at the end of 2021.
16. The Quadrantids will next peak on the January 2-3,2021 night.On this night,the moon will be 84% full.
17. Mahakumbh 2021 preparation is changing the face of Haridwar.
18. The Lesgislative Assembly elections to be held on 2021 in 5 states namely,Assam,Kerala,Puducherry,Tamilnadu and West Bengal.
19. There will be two lunar eclipse in 2021.The first will take place on May 26,2021 and the second occurrence will take place on November 19,2021.
20. The 2021 FIFA Club World Cup is scheduled to be the 18th edition of the FIFA Club World Cup.
Neuralink: a deeper introspection
6th sense of Human beings the Neuralink- Neuralink is a medical device developed in order to track and enhance brain activity. Moreover, it is like a Fitbit that tracks brain activities like neuron spike. Elon Musk said that the device will also be able to help regain someone’s eyesight even if they’ve lost their optic nerve. He said that this technology will be able to fix everything that’s wrong with the brain. With complete symbiosis of the tech, humans will be able to interact with each other without the need to talk.
It will be surgically implanted into the brain and with it, one will be able to communicate with machines and control them. For now, human trials are not yet begun but would start at the end of 2020. Furthermore, it will also help study the electrical signals in the brain and help cure various medical problems. Before testing on humans, Neuralink prototypes have been tested on rodents, monkeys, pigs, etc.
Before peeping deeper into Neuralink let’s understand the human brain first.
There are 86 billion Neurons in our Brain. These neurons consist of 3 parts: a dendrite that receives the signal, a cell body that computes the received signal, and an axon that sends the signal out.
Neurons are connected through Synapses. The neurons of your brain connect each other to send and receive signals through axon-dendrite connections called synapses. Neurons communicate through Electric Signals. These signals can be recorded in the brain. Recordings from many neurons allow us to decode the information and it represents intended movements.
To understand how Neuralink works, we must understand how our brain sends information to different parts of our body using neurons. These neurons in our brain connect to form a large network and communicate using chemical signals called neurotransmitters.
This reaction generates an electric field to record the reactions. These electrodes translate electrical signals into an algorithm that a machine can read. This is how Neuralink will be able to read what one is thinking and find a way to talk to machines without uttering a single word. It’s all your thoughts and link’s action.
The neural implant will let you control a computer or mobile device anywhere you go. Micron-scale threads are inserted into areas of the brain that control movement. Each thread contains many electrodes and connects them to an implant, the Link.
It’s a sealed, implanted device that processes and stimulates, and transmits neural signals.
Each small and flexible thread contains many electrodes for detecting neural signals.
A compact inductive charger that connects to the implant wirelessly to charge the battery; same as a smart-watch or fit bit.
Precision Automated Neurosurgery.
The threads on the Link are extremely fragile and flexible that they can’t be inserted by a human hand. Hence neurosurgeons would be provided with a robotic system that can reliably and efficiently insert these threads. The robot would be able to insert the link within an hour without general anesthesia and the patient would be able to leave the hospital on the same day.
Robots will do everything from the incision, removing the skull, inserting electrodes, placing the device, and then closing it up. These robotic systems were tested on numerous pigs used to test the device. This system has no room for errors. The Head of the machine holds and guides the needle that performs the operation and contains a large number of cameras to capture the whole brain.
How Neuralink will help to overcome mental disorders?
The Neuralink aims to fight neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, and other medical problems. The link is expected to even fight with common anxiety and depression yet that’s not proven. By taking primitive measures of implementing the Neuralink slowly and gradually we can hope best for it. There are high abilities and possibilities that Link could help fight a large number of medical illnesses and aims to create an affordable solution for people who lack the essential needs of medical treatment. At its level best, it will help to control the number of suicides that end lives before help can be received.
For now, those goals are very much out of reach. Scientists need to learn far more about the brain and how it works for any of those ideas to become reality. The brain is still mysterious and the neurological causes of addiction and anxiety are still unclear.
Why is Elon Musk testing his implant on Pigs?
In August 2020, Elon Musk’s 3 pig trial got rearing spotlight. The Neuralink implant was tested on 3 pigs; on 1st with no implant, on 2nd with an implant for some days and later it was removed and the 3rd pig still has the implant in her brain. The experiment of 2nd pig was done to show that if someone wanted to remove the link, they should be able to live a happy and healthy life after that. 3rd pig’s implant is active to track down all neural movements and to list down moments of snout and sniffs.
Hiring engineers for neurotechnology firm Neuralink
Neuralink is almost done dealing with a neuroscience background. The chip is an electrical device that requires mechanical/software engineers to deal with. It would be easier for these engineers to sort out problems like processing, indictive charging, power mgmt, etc. Most importantly, great problem-solving skills, solving high-volume, high-reliability, low-cost production problems are especially valued.
In the end, let’s hope best for the future of brain interfaces and inventing new technologies that will expand our abilities, our community, and our world.
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