What is the origin of life ?. The monumental question that became a debate between scientist and philosophers from decades. Now in 2020 ,NASA’s Spacecraft OSIRIS-REx is on the way to find the answer.
NASA’s Origin,Spectral Interpretation, Resource Indentification and Security-Regolith Explorer or OSIRIS-REx was launched in September of 2016 with a mission to collect samples of particles from asteroids , Specifically NASA is focusing on B-type Asteroids. B-type Asteroids
are the primitive one meaning they were formed nearly 4.5 billion years ago when our earth was formed and hasn’t changed much since then. This make B-type Asteroids on focus because they could contain Carbon based Organic molecules similar to those that led life on earth.
After Spotting a B-type Asteroid called 1999 RQ36 also known as Bennu ( an Egyptian bird deity) . Its diameter is about 500 meters i.e approximately 3 times bigger than statue of unity.
Since December 2018 , OSIRIS-REx has been surveying the surface of bennu , Mapping its surface and tracking the spin by orbiting around it. In 2019 it observed clusters of particles or dust coming up from the surface of asteroid. It also found that Bennu is densely covered in boulders which astronomers expect to be smoother. This discovery complicates OSIRIS-REx main mission of landing and collecting sample. Through all the surveys OSIRIS-REx indentified four possible sites where space craft could land. From all these four sites nightingale is found to be more promising than others.
NASA planned two rehearsals before actual landing to make sure everything would go smoothly. First rehearsal in April 2020 went off without any problem. Second rehearsal was pushed back to August 2020 due to corona virus pandemic. Second rehearsal went upto three steps of the sampling sequence but couldn’t collect the sample, this held because of connectivity issues as it takes 16 minutes for radio signal to reach that far. Hence scientists concluded that mission must be done autonomously by the space craft itself. The on board navigation system on Second rehearsal gave much detailed information about Bennu that convinced scientist to go further on mission . By collecting the data required for the mission now the next step is to go all the way up to collect the sample from Bennu.The first attempt after two rehearsals is scheduled on 20th October 2020.
If all goes well , OSIRIS-REx will send the sample back to earth arriving in September 2023. This sample would give scientist to look at very first piece of our solar system. This might give our answer on the question that what is origin of life? , Only if we found organic compound that led life on earth. To get our answers we need to wait till 2023.
FARMER BILL 2020, right or wrong ?
Farmer bill 2020 was passed on 17th September in Lok Sabha further, which left the farmers and opposition leaders infuriated
The farmer’s protest, the biggest the country has experienced in the past few years, it was intensified over the few days.
Thousands of farmers have made their way into the national capital and continue to raise voice for their demands
What does the bill say?
The bill claims to facilitate the substantial cause of farmers; Earlier farmers were obliged to sell their produce to government-regulated markets, or mandis, this bill aims to end the monopoly of APMC and inaugurate a free and capitalistic market.
These bills also enable the private organizations’ individuals to hoard essential commodities and produces, earlier only governmental bodies possessed the capability to do so: it even certified several rules for contract farming.
Another essential effect is going to be escorted by free markets which would end the state barriers and allow farmers to their produce to private organizations/individuals in any part of the country; earlier farmers were forced to sell their products within the state .
On paper these bills seem to be beneficial for the farmers, right ?
So , why are farmers protesting ?
1. Death of federalism : –
Considering the fact, Federalism is practiced in our nations and perhaps agriculture and markets are state subjects, the violates the principle of federalism, connotating the fact that it directly violates the Indian constitution.
2. End of MSPs :-
The Farmer’s produce trade and commerce ordinance aims at digressing the agriculture market from Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis for farmers, and even forbids any state government from assembling any kind of fees, levy, or cess originating from farmer or agricultural associates.
APMC was inaugurated to accomplish fair trade between buyers and sellers, APMC even possessed the capability to regulate the trade of farmers by presenting market fees or any other charges on trade, introducing a minimum cost for each commodity (MSP), assisting farmers to increase their production by providing them with adequate infrastructure.
The argument is justified because of the interpretation; dissolving these APMC would abolish minimum support prices.
3. Fluctuating prices :-
This bill fails to provide any mechanism for price fixations ; transferring the discretion of price into the hands of private, leaving the farmers in the hand of private player’s goodwill .
4. Denationalization of Edible commodities :-
The amendment in the bill abdicates cereals , pulses , oilseeds, edible oils , onion, and potatoes from the category of substantial commodities , the central government acquires the rights of regulating of supply during the war , famine , extraordinary price rise, and natural calamity .
The new bill says that , a stock limit may be imposed only if there is a 100% increase in retail price .
5. Jeopardization of food quality :-
The easing of regulation of food items could lead to a neglect in the quality of the crop as it would direct farmers , processors, or other agricultural associates to produce during the harvest season ; when prices are lower , and emancipating them when prices increases . It is being anticipated that this could resort to undermining food quality .
What is the governments response ?
At present several meetings have been held between government and representatives of farmers since November, but the government has rejected farmer’s demand of withdrawl of the 3 laws.
The farmers fear that laws passed in September, will deregulate the prices and obliterate their earnings. They even fear that these laws completely jettison’s the MSP(Minimum Support Prices) but the on the contrary side government has assured the farmers that they will continue the existence of Minimum support prices.
PM Modi have and his allies have insisted that these reforms will facilitate the condition sof farmers. he said that these reforms will allow farmers to market their produce and boost production through private investment.
In my opinion the government should comprehend and act upon the demands raised by farmers regarding the MSP’s, APMC’s and hinderances by the corporate players.
Although there have been verbal assurance given by the government that they will continue to provide MSP’s, but there is a necessity of a written assurance which covers all the demands raised by the farmers.
Agriculture : India’s primary occupation.
India’s primary occupation is Agriculture and there have been many reforms before and after independence in the field of agriculture. Farmers are our food lords and it is the most hardworking industry in India. Recently on 20th September, 2020 Parliament passed The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, 2020 and The Farmers Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020.
These two bills aimed at bringing transformation in the field of Agriculture and raising the income of the farmers.
The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce Bill, 2020 :
Provisions in the Bill:
1. The new legislation will create an ecosystem where the farmers and traders will enjoy freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agri-produce.
2. It will also promote barrier-free inter-state and intra-state trade and commerce outside the physical premises of markets notified under State Agricultural Produce Marketing legislations.
3. The Bill also proposes an electronic trading in transaction platform for ensuring a seamless trade electronically. In addition to mandis, freedom to do trading at farm gate, cold storage, warehouse, processing units etc.
4. Farmers will now get the benefits of direct trade and hence eliminating the intermediates resulting in full realising of price.
1. Procurement at Minimum Support Prices (MSP) will stop.
2. It has been a major doubt that if the goods will be sold outside the APMC than the mandis will stop functioning.
The Farmers Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020:
Provisions in the Bill:
1. The new legislation will empower farmers for engaging with processors, wholesalers, aggregators, wholesalers, large retailers, exporters etc., on a level playing field. Price assurance to farmers even before sowing of crops. In case of higher market price, farmers will be entitled to this price over and above the minimum price.
2. It will transfer the risk of market unpredictability from the farmer to the sponsor. Due to prior price determination, farmers will be shielded from the rise and fall of market prices.
3. It will also enable the farmer to access modern technology, better seed and other inputs.
4. It will reduce cost of marketing and improve income of farmers.
5. Impetus to research and new technology in agriculture sector.
1. Under contract farming, farmers will be under pressure and they will not be able to determine prices.
2. How will small farmers be able to practice contract farming, sponsors will shy away from them.
3. The new system will be a problem for farmers.
4. In case of dispute, big companies will be at an advantage.
After reading the above information the reader will understand that the bill that are passed are useless and there are no Clarification or Positive Impacts of this bill on the farmers. If observed on the above given negative impacts, it is clear that the farmers that are protesting since November 26, 2020 are in the fear of getting isolated in their own land and the whole farming process and then selling the crops will be in danger. The protests are not because thousands of farmers commit suicide every year, but to protect the flow that is going smoothly in the farming system.
Lacs of farmers and the organizations that are supporting the protest have made their tent at the border of the National capital, Delhi. Taking back the bill and cancelling the changes made in the system is the only solution to stop this protest. Internationally also there have been a greater support to the protest against the farmers act, 2020.
APMC is the best way to regulate the flow of the commodities of the farmers and the farmers are happy to take the help of the middleman because the middleman gives them the provision of flexible prices and the farmers are therefore not bounded to the prices. According to the new bill these middleman will be excluded and hence the farmers will lose control over the price regulation. Second problem is the APMC. APMC are excluded in the new bill and there will be trade outside the APMC, so they have fear of Shutting the Mandis. Mainly the farmers of the states Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are upset with this Act.
In this protest against the farmers act not a single religion is targeted and all the religion combined with each other and supporting one another are there to keep going this protest. At the time of CAA and NRC, when the Muslims were backed out then the Sikhs helped them out by organizing langar at various places. So now the position of the farmers is at danger, by giving in return The Langar will go on 24×7 till the protest continues , said the team of Muslim Federation of Punjab.
This is a team of 25 members who are Muslim men been serving the Langar since Wednesday to the Farmers protesting at Delhi’s Singhu border. The team of the Muslim Federation of Punjab is led by Faaroqi Mubin, said that, “They have arrived at Singhu border to feed the farmers who have feed everyone”.
The hopes of these protesting Farmers were crushed when the fifth round of talks failed on 5th December and not taking their demand into consideration. The result is they will not fall back but will fight and keep the protest continue. Some of the Aspect are untold of this protest and this is very vulnerable to the society and for the people living in the society.