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Chandrayaan: A successful series

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Chandrayaan as its name suggests the vehicle for the moon. All the series of Chandrayaan have been very successful and have been sending very valuable and unique pictures of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 has completed one whole year on 7th September 2020. It has shown good progress up in the orbit of the moon. We have been trying to reach the moon and find out the valuable resources up there. An atmosphere like Earth, maybe we can create it there. Water was also found by the previous versions of Chandrayaan. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has been trying to reach the south pole of the moon and find the water existence.

Talking about Chandrayaan-3 it will be launched in March 2021 and will be slightly different from its predecessor Chandrayaan-2. Chandrayaan-3 will not have an orbiter but it will only consist of a lander and a rover. Due to the Corona pandemic situation, there has been a delay in launching Chandrayaan-3. The target area will be the South Pole of the moon and the rocket used in this is the most powerful rocket of ISRO till date is the GSLV Mark 3. The launch site will at Satish Dhawan space center.

Moon is the closest we can explore. Moon may have some of the properties of the Earth because of the close distance. Chandrayaan-1 sent some images of rusting on the poles of the moon that show that there is the existence of water and oxygen because if these two elements are there then only the iron-rich rocks that are present there can react and rusting can happen. Because of the hard landing, Chandrayaan-2 ‘s Vikram lander had some problems but it is there in the lunar orbit and has enough fuel to survive till 7 long years. Chandrayaan-3 is a repeat mission of version 2 and it has an only lander and lunar rover and it is planned that this time there will be a soft landing. So hoping for the good and Chandrayaan-3 will be at its new heights soon.

Following this timeline Ministry also announced the first crewed orbiter namely Gaganyaan. This project will be launched in December 2021. An extent to 400km in the Earth’s orbit and the rocket used here is also GSLV mark 3. The maximum space for the crew is 3. Hope this would be a success.

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Interstellar Engine

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interatellar

INTERSTELLAR ENGINE : Let’s make a moving sollar system ImageNothing in the Universe is static. In the milky way, billions of stars orbit the galactic center.Some, like our sun, are pretty consistent, keeping a distance of around 30,000 light years from the galactic center, completing an orbit every 230 million years.
This dance is not an orderly ballet – more like a skating rink filled with drunk toddlers. This chaos makes the galaxy dangerous. Our solar neighbourhood is constantly changing, with stars moving hundreds of kilometers every second.

Only the vast distances between objects protect us from the dangers out there. But we might get unlucky in the future. At some point we could encounter a star going supernova. Or a massive object passing by and showering earth with asteroids.If something like this were to happen we would likely know thousands, if not millions of years in advance. But we still couldn’t do much about it.Unless… we move our whole solar system our way Image A INTERSTELLAR ENGINE Stellar engines are a class of hypothetical megastructures which use a star’s radiation to create usable energy. The concept has been introduced by Badescu and Cathcart. Some variants use this energy to produce thrust, and thus accelerate a star, and anything orbiting it, in a given direction .The creation of such a system would make its builders a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale.
A Stellar engine have a capacity to move a whole solar system. But a question arise “Here how can we move a whole solar system with the help of a single stellar engine ? ” .The answer is as simple as question i.e by simply moving out the sun. As we move the sun all the planet and asteroid under his will move along sun on his path .


There are lots of idea about a stellar engine and its working.
We can make 2 type of stellar engine on are current understanding of physics.
1) Shkadov Thruster
2) Caplan Thruster
Shkadov Thruster Image
One of the simplest examples of a stellar engine is the Shkadov thruster (named after Dr. Leonid Shkadov who first proposed it), or a Class A stellar engine.[4] Such an engine is a stellar propulsion system, consisting of an enormous mirror/light sail—actually a massive type of solar statite large enough to classify as a megastructure—which would balance gravitational attraction towards and radiation pressure away from the star. Since the radiation pressure of the star would now be asymmetrical, i.e. more radiation is being emitted in one direction as compared to another, the ‘excess’ radiation pressure acts as net thrust, accelerating the star in the direction of the hovering statite. Such thrust and acceleration would be very slight, but such a system could be stable for millennia. Any planetary system attached to the star would be ‘dragged’ along by its parent star. For a star such as the Sun, with luminosity 3.85 × 1026 W and mass 1.99 × 1030 kg, the total thrust produced by reflecting half of the solar output would be 1.28 × 1018 N. After a period of one million years this would yield an imparted speed of 20 m/s, with a displacement from the original position of 0.03 light-years. After one billion years, the speed would be 20 km/s and the displacement 34,000 light-years, a little over a third of the estimated width of the Milky Way galaxy.
Caplan Thruster


Astronomer Matthew E. Caplan of Illinois State University has proposed a type of stellar engine that uses concentrated stellar energy to excite certain regions of the outer surface of the star and create beams of solar wind for collection by a multi-Bussard ramjet assembly, producing directed plasma to stabilize its orbit, and jets of oxygen-14 to push the star. Using rudimentary calculations that assume maximum efficiency, Caplan estimates the Bussard engine would use 1015 grams per second of solar material to produce a maximum acceleration of 10−9 m/s2, yielding a velocity of 200 km/s after 5 million years, and a distance of 10 parsecs over 1 million years. While theoretically the Bussard engine would work for 100 million years given the mass loss rate of the Sun, Caplan deems 10 million years to be sufficient for a stellar collision avoidance. His proposal was commissioned by the German educational YouTube channel Kurzgesagt.

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The Biggest Revolution

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When we talk about the biggest revolution, most people think about the different revolution coded by their colour as for example, the green revolution, the white revolution, the pink revolution, etc. Some also might think about the Russian revolution or the Iranian revolution. But according to us, these revolutions are nothing as compared to the modern day Digital revolution. It has completely changed the way we live our life, and as for me Digital revolution could be considered as the biggest revolution in the history of human civilisation.

INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER

Rajiv Gandhi, also known as the ‘Father of Information Technology and Telecom Revolution of India’ was the man who introduced computer in India. His introduction was followed by a series of riots, as people thought that bringing computer to the country will make everything automated, and thus will cause loss of jobs. Well, now it surely proves that he had a great vision for the country and that he knew that the computer was the only way to help in the development of the country.

AUTOMATION OF MACHINES

Factories all over India, now mostly have computers operating them with minimum staffs operating the machines, which made people believe that computer education is a must as it increased jobs opportunity, reduced the cost of machine repairing, and also thus helping in the development of the country. It has also helped in less error occurrences that might occur when in the hands of the human beings. Reduced labour charge because of reduced use of human hands has also caused in the reduced cost of production of products, thus reducing the selling price of products and even helping the company in targetting customers with lower income potentials.

DEVELOPMENT IN HEALTH SERVICES

An important field computers impacted on is the medical field. The computers helped the hospitals out very much. In pharmacies, the pharmacists use computers to keep a record of what medication to give to a patient and the amount they need. Most computers in the hospital are used to keep data of patience and their status. Computers also keep track of equipment placement and status as well. Scientists need the help of computers to find cures for diseases that need cures like cancer and STDs. Without the computers help, cures for a lot of diseases wouldn’t have been found. Computer helped the medical area a lot and we are grateful for that since they keep track of our health.

CONNECTING WITH FRIENDS AND RELATIVES

The telecom revolution also added up to the development of the country by helping people to connect with their friends and relatives over thousands of kilometres. Applications like Facebook, Instagram, Whatsapp, has helped people to stay connected with their loved ones. Video calling used widely after the development of the 4G connection in India has made people in believing that distance has nothing to do with bonding. Upcoming 5G connection in India will provide even faster internet connection over time, video calling in the upcoming future telecommunication upgrade can make the people to be seen life like whilst in a video call.

HELP IN THE CORONA PANDEMIC

The corona pandemic has surely destroyed the daily routine of people, but even after that, the digital revolution made sure that our daily is not left behind whilst fighting the pandemic. Offline classes were changed to online with teacher teaching their students with the help of a presented screen. Private companies made their employees to work from home. People attended conferences with other people staying thousands of kilometres away whilst enjoying their morning coffee. Frustrating Monday mornings were not frustrating anymore, as people need not get up early in the morning, do the daily chores and rush for the metro, instead they could just wake up and instantly start attending the meeting.

5G CONNECTION NEWS

CEO of Jio, Mukesh Ambani has till now confirmed that “5G connection would be available to use by the mid 2021”, not before that. But, even then it will not be available for everyone to be used by people door to door. It could be available for use for everyone in India from door to door, only after 2022 January. So, buying 5g phone will not be recommendable if you are not living in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, or Chennai. Airtel recently tested it’s 5g network in Hyderabad using the 1.8GHz band. Airtel CEO, Gopal Vittal believes that a true 5G experience is possible only after the government allocates mid-band spectrum (2.2-3.7 GHz) for the new networks, which hasn’t happened yet. Once, the necessary spectrum is available, Airtel believes it’s networks can deliver 10 times higher speeds while reducing latency 10 times.

In simple words, Digital revolution has played a major role in the development of the country throughout. It has not only introduced major job opportunities, but has also reduced the workload from the workers and has also helped people to stay connected from a thousand kilometres. Leaving these, there might be a thousand which we might have forget to mention.

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Neuralink: a deeper introspection

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6th sense of Human beings the Neuralink- Neuralink is a medical device developed in order to track and enhance brain activity. Moreover, it is like a Fitbit that tracks brain activities like neuron spike. Elon Musk said that the device will also be able to help regain someone’s eyesight even if they’ve lost their optic nerve. He said that this technology will be able to fix everything that’s wrong with the brain. With complete symbiosis of the tech, humans will be able to interact with each other without the need to talk.

It will be surgically implanted into the brain and with it, one will be able to communicate with machines and control them. For now, human trials are not yet begun but would start at the end of 2020. Furthermore, it will also help study the electrical signals in the brain and help cure various medical problems. Before testing on humans, Neuralink prototypes have been tested on rodents, monkeys, pigs, etc.

Before peeping deeper into Neuralink let’s understand the human brain first.


There are 86 billion Neurons in our Brain. These neurons consist of 3 parts: a dendrite that receives the signal, a cell body that computes the received signal, and an axon that sends the signal out.


Neurons are connected through Synapses. The neurons of your brain connect each other to send and receive signals through axon-dendrite connections called synapses. Neurons communicate through Electric Signals. These signals can be recorded in the brain. Recordings from many neurons allow us to decode the information and it represents intended movements.


To understand how Neuralink works, we must understand how our brain sends information to different parts of our body using neurons. These neurons in our brain connect to form a large network and communicate using chemical signals called neurotransmitters.

This reaction generates an electric field to record the reactions. These electrodes translate electrical signals into an algorithm that a machine can read. This is how Neuralink will be able to read what one is thinking and find a way to talk to machines without uttering a single word. It’s all your thoughts and link’s action.


The neural implant will let you control a computer or mobile device anywhere you go. Micron-scale threads are inserted into areas of the brain that control movement. Each thread contains many electrodes and connects them to an implant, the Link.


The link:

It’s a sealed, implanted device that processes and stimulates, and transmits neural signals.


Neural threads:

Each small and flexible thread contains many electrodes for detecting neural signals.


Charger:

A compact inductive charger that connects to the implant wirelessly to charge the battery; same as a smart-watch or fit bit.

Precision Automated Neurosurgery.


The threads on the Link are extremely fragile and flexible that they can’t be inserted by a human hand. Hence neurosurgeons would be provided with a robotic system that can reliably and efficiently insert these threads. The robot would be able to insert the link within an hour without general anesthesia and the patient would be able to leave the hospital on the same day.

Robots will do everything from the incision, removing the skull, inserting electrodes, placing the device, and then closing it up. These robotic systems were tested on numerous pigs used to test the device. This system has no room for errors. The Head of the machine holds and guides the needle that performs the operation and contains a large number of cameras to capture the whole brain.

How Neuralink will help to overcome mental disorders?


The Neuralink aims to fight neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, and other medical problems. The link is expected to even fight with common anxiety and depression yet that’s not proven. By taking primitive measures of implementing the Neuralink slowly and gradually we can hope best for it. There are high abilities and possibilities that Link could help fight a large number of medical illnesses and aims to create an affordable solution for people who lack the essential needs of medical treatment. At its level best, it will help to control the number of suicides that end lives before help can be received.


For now, those goals are very much out of reach. Scientists need to learn far more about the brain and how it works for any of those ideas to become reality. The brain is still mysterious and the neurological causes of addiction and anxiety are still unclear.


Why is Elon Musk testing his implant on Pigs?


In August 2020, Elon Musk’s 3 pig trial got rearing spotlight. The Neuralink implant was tested on 3 pigs; on 1st with no implant, on 2nd with an implant for some days and later it was removed and the 3rd pig still has the implant in her brain. The experiment of 2nd pig was done to show that if someone wanted to remove the link, they should be able to live a happy and healthy life after that. 3rd pig’s implant is active to track down all neural movements and to list down moments of snout and sniffs.


Hiring engineers for neurotechnology firm Neuralink


Neuralink is almost done dealing with a neuroscience background. The chip is an electrical device that requires mechanical/software engineers to deal with. It would be easier for these engineers to sort out problems like processing, indictive charging, power mgmt, etc. Most importantly, great problem-solving skills, solving high-volume, high-reliability, low-cost production problems are especially valued.

In the end, let’s hope best for the future of brain interfaces and inventing new technologies that will expand our abilities, our community, and our world.


-Anushka Sharad

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