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ISRO: The Leading Frontier in Space



Indian Space Research Organization has been steadily building its launching and exploration capabilities for decades. Roots of ISRO stretch back to 1962, first PM enlisted physicist Vikram Sarabhai to set up organization, Sarabhai is known as the founding father of India’s space program because of efforts taken by him along with the another exceptionally remarkable legendary personality Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam sir. Undoubtedly, they pioneered the organization.
Transporting components and payloads of rocket to the launch site by bicycle, setting up the mission control room into a church in village of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala to building one of the biggest rocket in the world, GSLV mk3, isro has came a very long way.

1. The first rocket launch flew from Saint Mary Magadalene Church in the fishing village of Thumbi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala on Nov. 21, 1963. The sounding rocket, which only reached sub-orbital space, was called Nike-Apache whose components were built by NASA.

2. Six years later in 1969, India launched first satellite, called Aryabhata, into orbit aboard a Soviet rocket. It was named for an ancient Indian astronomer, Aryabhata conducted several experiments in X-ray astronomy and solar physics.

3. In 1979, Isro successfully conducted the first test on our own homemade orbital rocket, the Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3). The four stage vehicle which is capable of carrying 40KG of payloads into orbit. After its successful launch on July 18, 1980, India became the sixth nation to achieve spaceflight. SLV-3 carried the Rohini-1 satellite into orbit.

4. Subsequently, isro developed two other types of rocket. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), for launching satellites into polar orbit and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites in geostationary orbits. These rocket beasts have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites including satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. Isro also used an indigenous cryogenic engine, CE-7.5 in GSLV-D5 for the launch of GSAT-14.

5. Remarkable mission, in which Isro sent lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 on 22 Oct. 2008 to the Moon. The probe was about the size of refrigerator, helped discover the evidences of water molecules in the form of ice on moon for the first time.

6. Five years later, in 2014, Irso flew the Mars Orbiter Mission, nicknamed Mangalyaan, to the Mars. On Sept. 24, 2014, vehicle successfully reached Mars, making India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt and just the Fourth entity to place a spacecraft in Martian orbit. The mission was completed at a record-low cost of just 450 crore($74 million) which way less than cost of hollywood movie “The Martian” ($108 million). This is ISRO for you, efficient and economical.

7. On Feb 15, 2017, Isro set up a world record by launching 104 satellites in a single rocket which was PSLV-C37. On June 5, 2017, Isro launched its heaviest beast, GSLV- MARK III and successfully placed a communication satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this endeavour, Isro became a capable of launching 4 ton heavy satellites in GTO.

8. On July 22, 2019, Isro launched second lunar probe Chandrayaan-2. The probe successfully reached in lunar orbit but lander Vikram lost contact as it was just 2.1 KM above the lunar surface. Despite the apparent crash landing of the lander, the whole orbiter is working well and helping scientist to study. The lander part was just 5% of the whole mission.

9. Isro is now gearing up to send humans into space using their own rockets. Isro’s human spaceflight program named as Gaganyaan mission. It would be launched in year 2022, when India will celebrating the 75th year of independence. The proud moment for every Indian on the globe.

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Interstellar Engine




INTERSTELLAR ENGINE : Let’s make a moving sollar system ImageNothing in the Universe is static. In the milky way, billions of stars orbit the galactic center.Some, like our sun, are pretty consistent, keeping a distance of around 30,000 light years from the galactic center, completing an orbit every 230 million years.
This dance is not an orderly ballet – more like a skating rink filled with drunk toddlers. This chaos makes the galaxy dangerous. Our solar neighbourhood is constantly changing, with stars moving hundreds of kilometers every second.

Only the vast distances between objects protect us from the dangers out there. But we might get unlucky in the future. At some point we could encounter a star going supernova. Or a massive object passing by and showering earth with asteroids.If something like this were to happen we would likely know thousands, if not millions of years in advance. But we still couldn’t do much about it.Unless… we move our whole solar system our way Image A INTERSTELLAR ENGINE Stellar engines are a class of hypothetical megastructures which use a star’s radiation to create usable energy. The concept has been introduced by Badescu and Cathcart. Some variants use this energy to produce thrust, and thus accelerate a star, and anything orbiting it, in a given direction .The creation of such a system would make its builders a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale.
A Stellar engine have a capacity to move a whole solar system. But a question arise “Here how can we move a whole solar system with the help of a single stellar engine ? ” .The answer is as simple as question i.e by simply moving out the sun. As we move the sun all the planet and asteroid under his will move along sun on his path .

There are lots of idea about a stellar engine and its working.
We can make 2 type of stellar engine on are current understanding of physics.
1) Shkadov Thruster
2) Caplan Thruster
Shkadov Thruster Image
One of the simplest examples of a stellar engine is the Shkadov thruster (named after Dr. Leonid Shkadov who first proposed it), or a Class A stellar engine.[4] Such an engine is a stellar propulsion system, consisting of an enormous mirror/light sail—actually a massive type of solar statite large enough to classify as a megastructure—which would balance gravitational attraction towards and radiation pressure away from the star. Since the radiation pressure of the star would now be asymmetrical, i.e. more radiation is being emitted in one direction as compared to another, the ‘excess’ radiation pressure acts as net thrust, accelerating the star in the direction of the hovering statite. Such thrust and acceleration would be very slight, but such a system could be stable for millennia. Any planetary system attached to the star would be ‘dragged’ along by its parent star. For a star such as the Sun, with luminosity 3.85 × 1026 W and mass 1.99 × 1030 kg, the total thrust produced by reflecting half of the solar output would be 1.28 × 1018 N. After a period of one million years this would yield an imparted speed of 20 m/s, with a displacement from the original position of 0.03 light-years. After one billion years, the speed would be 20 km/s and the displacement 34,000 light-years, a little over a third of the estimated width of the Milky Way galaxy.
Caplan Thruster

Astronomer Matthew E. Caplan of Illinois State University has proposed a type of stellar engine that uses concentrated stellar energy to excite certain regions of the outer surface of the star and create beams of solar wind for collection by a multi-Bussard ramjet assembly, producing directed plasma to stabilize its orbit, and jets of oxygen-14 to push the star. Using rudimentary calculations that assume maximum efficiency, Caplan estimates the Bussard engine would use 1015 grams per second of solar material to produce a maximum acceleration of 10−9 m/s2, yielding a velocity of 200 km/s after 5 million years, and a distance of 10 parsecs over 1 million years. While theoretically the Bussard engine would work for 100 million years given the mass loss rate of the Sun, Caplan deems 10 million years to be sufficient for a stellar collision avoidance. His proposal was commissioned by the German educational YouTube channel Kurzgesagt.

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The Biggest Revolution



When we talk about the biggest revolution, most people think about the different revolution coded by their colour as for example, the green revolution, the white revolution, the pink revolution, etc. Some also might think about the Russian revolution or the Iranian revolution. But according to us, these revolutions are nothing as compared to the modern day Digital revolution. It has completely changed the way we live our life, and as for me Digital revolution could be considered as the biggest revolution in the history of human civilisation.


Rajiv Gandhi, also known as the ‘Father of Information Technology and Telecom Revolution of India’ was the man who introduced computer in India. His introduction was followed by a series of riots, as people thought that bringing computer to the country will make everything automated, and thus will cause loss of jobs. Well, now it surely proves that he had a great vision for the country and that he knew that the computer was the only way to help in the development of the country.


Factories all over India, now mostly have computers operating them with minimum staffs operating the machines, which made people believe that computer education is a must as it increased jobs opportunity, reduced the cost of machine repairing, and also thus helping in the development of the country. It has also helped in less error occurrences that might occur when in the hands of the human beings. Reduced labour charge because of reduced use of human hands has also caused in the reduced cost of production of products, thus reducing the selling price of products and even helping the company in targetting customers with lower income potentials.


An important field computers impacted on is the medical field. The computers helped the hospitals out very much. In pharmacies, the pharmacists use computers to keep a record of what medication to give to a patient and the amount they need. Most computers in the hospital are used to keep data of patience and their status. Computers also keep track of equipment placement and status as well. Scientists need the help of computers to find cures for diseases that need cures like cancer and STDs. Without the computers help, cures for a lot of diseases wouldn’t have been found. Computer helped the medical area a lot and we are grateful for that since they keep track of our health.


The telecom revolution also added up to the development of the country by helping people to connect with their friends and relatives over thousands of kilometres. Applications like Facebook, Instagram, Whatsapp, has helped people to stay connected with their loved ones. Video calling used widely after the development of the 4G connection in India has made people in believing that distance has nothing to do with bonding. Upcoming 5G connection in India will provide even faster internet connection over time, video calling in the upcoming future telecommunication upgrade can make the people to be seen life like whilst in a video call.


The corona pandemic has surely destroyed the daily routine of people, but even after that, the digital revolution made sure that our daily is not left behind whilst fighting the pandemic. Offline classes were changed to online with teacher teaching their students with the help of a presented screen. Private companies made their employees to work from home. People attended conferences with other people staying thousands of kilometres away whilst enjoying their morning coffee. Frustrating Monday mornings were not frustrating anymore, as people need not get up early in the morning, do the daily chores and rush for the metro, instead they could just wake up and instantly start attending the meeting.


CEO of Jio, Mukesh Ambani has till now confirmed that “5G connection would be available to use by the mid 2021”, not before that. But, even then it will not be available for everyone to be used by people door to door. It could be available for use for everyone in India from door to door, only after 2022 January. So, buying 5g phone will not be recommendable if you are not living in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, or Chennai. Airtel recently tested it’s 5g network in Hyderabad using the 1.8GHz band. Airtel CEO, Gopal Vittal believes that a true 5G experience is possible only after the government allocates mid-band spectrum (2.2-3.7 GHz) for the new networks, which hasn’t happened yet. Once, the necessary spectrum is available, Airtel believes it’s networks can deliver 10 times higher speeds while reducing latency 10 times.

In simple words, Digital revolution has played a major role in the development of the country throughout. It has not only introduced major job opportunities, but has also reduced the workload from the workers and has also helped people to stay connected from a thousand kilometres. Leaving these, there might be a thousand which we might have forget to mention.

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