I hope you all went through last article and plunge into Schrodinger’s thought experiment and feel some glimpse of Quantum Physics and its weirdness. Before taking our journey towards the physics of lights, eventually at Theory of Relativity, let’s see one more practical experiment of Quantum physics. It is more uncanny and mystical experiment ever done in the respective field. The experiment first performed by Thomas Young, known as “Double Slit Experiment”. Some of you might have been heard about this(perhaps in recent time).
To start off, imagine a wall with two slits in it. Imagine you are throwing a tennis ball at the wall. Some will bounce off the wall but some will travel through the slits. Now let’s consider there’s another wall behind the first, the ball that traveled through the slits of first wall will hit on it. If you mark the spots where a ball has hit the second wall, what do you expect to see? Obviously right. Two strips of marks roughly the same shape as the slits. Following image shows the first wall with slits from top and the second wall is from the front.
Now, instead of tennis ball, we are using a shining light of single color and of a single wavelength. Imagine shining such light at the wall of two slits. What do you expecting in this condition? The light traveling through slits only gets hit on second wall and pattern that will form on the second wall is of two slits. But now you are wrong here, this doesn’t happen. As the light wave passes through both slits, it essentially splits into two new waves, each spreading out from one of the slit. This two waves then interferes with each other and they reinforce each other. And when these waves of lights hits on the second wall place behind the first, you will see the stripes like pattern, called an Interference pattern. That bright stripes come from the waves reinforcing each other. Photons pass at one time through wall containing two slits. If either path of photon is monitored, it seemingly passes through one slit or the other without showing interference pattern. Conversely, if neither is checked, photon will appear to have passed through both slits simultaneously before interfering with itself, acting like a wave. Strange!!!! The wave-particle duality of photon. In the following image, you can see the actual interference pattern when passes through two slits.Actual image of interference pattern of lightArtistic representation of Dual slit experiment with light
Now imagine firing electrons at our wall of two slits but if you close the one slit among two, you will see only one rectangular strip (through which that electrons has passed) on the second wall. Just as tennis ball would: the spots arrive in the form of strip roughly the same shape of slit. But when you keep both slits open, the pattern is interference i.e. more stripes than two.
How could this happen? This might be because electron interfere with each other. But how can an electron pass through both slits at a time? There could be possibility that electron somehow splits, then passes through slits once, interfere with itself and then recombines to meet the second screen as a single.
To find this out, you have to put detector by the slits to see which slit an electron passes through. The scientists actually did this and they are stunned after seeing the results. Pattern on the detector screen turns into the particle pattern of two strips, as seen in the situation of tennis ball. The interference pattern disappeared. As if that electrons knew that someone is observing us and they changed their nature. As if they were being spied and decided not to be caught in act of performing weird quantum secret. You can see following, the actual double slit experiment with electrons. Individual picture show the pattern you get as more and more electrons fired.
Our act of looking, measuring, observing a quantum system has profound effect on the system. Simply, our observation affecting the reality. This is how quantum realm behaves. If you have any question, please put it in the comment, I’ll try my best to answer the respective question. Till then, stay in your duality until you’re being observed.
Scientists spot a sign of possible Life on Venus
VENUS- Earth’s evil twin it’s clouds are made of battery acids. At 900 degrees its surface heat enough to melt lead, Venus is pretty much like the biblical vision of hell today. This may be the hostile real estate in the solar system yet billions of years ago Venus looked alike Earth but to the near of sun Venus was doomed and Earth blossomed. Venus burned yet even here life may thrive.
An international team of astronomers has detected a rare molecule in the atmosphere of Venus that could be produced by living organisms. The discovery instantly puts the brightest planet in the night sky back into the conversation about where to search for extraterrestrial life.
The surface of Venus is a more like a hell. However, some layers of its clouds spot surprisingly hospitable temperatures and pressures. Phosphine is a poisonous gas however, the organizers of the study and other experts agree that the presence of phosphine is not proof of life on another planet.
As astronomers look for signs of life outside our solar system, one method is to look for chemicals that result only from biological processes. These processes are known as bio-signatures.
Phosphine can form only in two ways on Earth. It can be created by an industrial process, or it can come from a biological process in animals and microbes that is not well understood. Some scientists consider it as a waste product.
It’s said that phosphine can be found in the bottom of ponds, the insides of animals like badgers and in the waste of penguins. The astronomers carefully looked at all the possibilities for production of the phosphine: volcanoes, lightning strikes or meteorites falling into the atmosphere. Not a single process we looked at could produce phosphine in high enough quantities to explain the team’s findings.
Furthermore, it is noticed that 50 kilometers above the planet’s surface, in Venus’ thick carbon dioxide clouds, it is about room temperature. The clouds are mostly made up of sulfuric acid. But they also contain droplets with very small amounts of water.
The scientists asked themselves if the phosphine could be coming from microbes living inside the sulfuric acid droplets. Than when the droplets fall to the ground, they might dry out but could collect in other droplets and reanimate.
Venus is one of the most beautiful objects in Earth’s sky. But at a closer glance, the less lovely it becomes. Venus is roughly the same mass as Earth. Many scientists think that Venus was once covered in water and possessed an atmosphere where life as we know it could have flourished.
In earlier days of the solar system, Earth was not so hospitable to the desires we have. Even an entire biosphere that did not survive in the oxygen-rich environment that later developed. And much as Earth over time became a home for jellyfish, ferns, dinosaurs and Homo sapiens, Venus was transformed by something into a hell.
Today, the second planet from the sun has an atmosphere stifled by carbon dioxide gas, and surface temperatures that average more than 800 degrees Fahrenheit. The dense atmosphere of Venus exerts a pressure of more than 1,300 pounds per square inch on anything at the surface. That is more than 90 times the 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level on Earth, or the equivalent to being 3,000 feet underwater in the ocean.
For the last two decades, scientists keep making new discoveries that collectively imply a significant increase of the likelihood to find life elsewhere. Many scientists would not have guessed that Venus would be a significant part of this discussion. But, just like an increasing number of planetary bodies, Venus is proving to be an exciting place of discovery.
If there really is phosphine on Venus, its believed there could be no other obvious explanation than anaerobic life.
Chandrayaan: A successful series
Chandrayaan as its name suggests the vehicle for the moon. All the series of Chandrayaan have been very successful and have been sending very valuable and unique pictures of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 has completed one whole year on 7th September 2020. It has shown good progress up in the orbit of the moon. We have been trying to reach the moon and find out the valuable resources up there. An atmosphere like Earth, maybe we can create it there. Water was also found by the previous versions of Chandrayaan. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has been trying to reach the south pole of the moon and find the water existence.
Talking about Chandrayaan-3 it will be launched in March 2021 and will be slightly different from its predecessor Chandrayaan-2. Chandrayaan-3 will not have an orbiter but it will only consist of a lander and a rover. Due to the Corona pandemic situation, there has been a delay in launching Chandrayaan-3. The target area will be the South Pole of the moon and the rocket used in this is the most powerful rocket of ISRO till date is the GSLV Mark 3. The launch site will at Satish Dhawan space center.
Moon is the closest we can explore. Moon may have some of the properties of the Earth because of the close distance. Chandrayaan-1 sent some images of rusting on the poles of the moon that show that there is the existence of water and oxygen because if these two elements are there then only the iron-rich rocks that are present there can react and rusting can happen. Because of the hard landing, Chandrayaan-2 ‘s Vikram lander had some problems but it is there in the lunar orbit and has enough fuel to survive till 7 long years. Chandrayaan-3 is a repeat mission of version 2 and it has an only lander and lunar rover and it is planned that this time there will be a soft landing. So hoping for the good and Chandrayaan-3 will be at its new heights soon.
Following this timeline Ministry also announced the first crewed orbiter namely Gaganyaan. This project will be launched in December 2021. An extent to 400km in the Earth’s orbit and the rocket used here is also GSLV mark 3. The maximum space for the crew is 3. Hope this would be a success.
Year of tech convergence 2020
Well, as far as the COVID-19 is concerned, it’s successful in completely destroying the year 2020. But, some inventions or concepts that might be successful in future can bring a smile on your face. So, after short listing we have come up with the list.
1. 5G connections.
5G can come up everywhere You may have already seen ads about 5G wireless phones. AT&T and Verizon both are setting up small connection points in public places, like sports stadiums, to show off what’s to come. But that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Right now, 5G doesn’t have a lot of range, which is why it can only be used in small areas, but that won’t always be the case.
According to Computer World, the 5G implementations out there right now use millimetre-wave technology, which uses the highest frequencies, but has the least range, which is why it can currently only cover portions of an NFL stadium, for example. This will change, however, as lower-frequency service is on the way, too, and while it won’t be as fast, it will have greater range, and still be way faster than 4G LTE, the current standard.
The most exciting thing about 5G, though, is that it’s not just for phones. 5G will be a full-on broadband internet service, meaning that instead of having one service for your mobile devices and one for home internet, you’ll be able to get home 5G and take it with you, as well. That also means less reliance on Wi-Fi and more potential for devices with their own, dedicated connection.
2. Electric car batteries.
Electric car batteries will only get better Electric cars are becoming more likely to replace standard cars every year, but currently, one of the biggest things holding them back are batteries. Your typical electric car today only has a range of 150 to 310 miles and takes an hour or more to charge. Once your vehicle runs out of juice, you might be stuck waiting for it to recharge.
But two new innovations are on the way. First, a new discovery has reduced those hours long charge times down to just 10 minutes. It works by increasing the temperature of the battery as it charges, which researchers have found causes the charging reaction to occur far more quickly than it did before. Best of all, this doesn’t degrade the battery at all, according to Science. The battery’s lifespan remains the same.
Meanwhile, Swiss company Innolith claims to have created a new electric car battery than can offer 600 miles on a charge, according to The Verge. That’s more than two tanks of gas for your average fossil fuel vehicle. It will take some time to release, and there are some skeptical folks out there, as independent researchers and reviewers haven’t gotten to take a look at the battery themselves just yet. Even still, the race to create a more efficient and higher capacity battery is ongoing now, and they’re only going to improve.
People will be able to feel things in virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) made a big splash in the last decade, but things will only get more interesting from here, starting with the ability to touch and feel the things we see through all the various kinds of computer-generated imagery. While experiments of this sort have been tried in the past, the results were often very bulky and required a ton of power, necessitating large batteries to be attached.
Now, though, new technologies are allowing for tactile “skins” that are far thinner and require far less power. One of these is developed by John A. Rogers and his team at North-western University. Their skin uses tiny, thin discs to create vibrations instead of bigger actuators you might find in a gaming controller or phone, which use a lot more power. What’s more, they’re thin enough they can be charged using near-field technology, meaning less reliance on large batteries, according to Scientific American.
Meanwhile, Swiss researchers at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) have developed their own tactile skin, which works similarly, but uses pneumatic actuators instead and can provide very delicate amounts of tactile feedback all the way up to one Newton of force. These aren’t the only two groups working on this, either, so it’s likely there will be hepatic feedback patches all the way up to clothing like gloves and, someday, entire suits of second skin.
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