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ISRO: The Leading Frontier in Space



Indian Space Research Organization has been steadily building its launching and exploration capabilities for decades. Roots of ISRO stretch back to 1962, first PM enlisted physicist Vikram Sarabhai to set up organization, Sarabhai is known as the founding father of India’s space program because of efforts taken by him along with the another exceptionally remarkable legendary personality Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam sir. Undoubtedly, they pioneered the organization.
Transporting components and payloads of rocket to the launch site by bicycle, setting up the mission control room into a church in village of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala to building one of the biggest rocket in the world, GSLV mk3, isro has came a very long way.

1. The first rocket launch flew from Saint Mary Magadalene Church in the fishing village of Thumbi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala on Nov. 21, 1963. The sounding rocket, which only reached sub-orbital space, was called Nike-Apache whose components were built by NASA.

2. Six years later in 1969, India launched first satellite, called Aryabhata, into orbit aboard a Soviet rocket. It was named for an ancient Indian astronomer, Aryabhata conducted several experiments in X-ray astronomy and solar physics.

3. In 1979, Isro successfully conducted the first test on our own homemade orbital rocket, the Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3). The four stage vehicle which is capable of carrying 40KG of payloads into orbit. After its successful launch on July 18, 1980, India became the sixth nation to achieve spaceflight. SLV-3 carried the Rohini-1 satellite into orbit.

4. Subsequently, isro developed two other types of rocket. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), for launching satellites into polar orbit and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites in geostationary orbits. These rocket beasts have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites including satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. Isro also used an indigenous cryogenic engine, CE-7.5 in GSLV-D5 for the launch of GSAT-14.

5. Remarkable mission, in which Isro sent lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 on 22 Oct. 2008 to the Moon. The probe was about the size of refrigerator, helped discover the evidences of water molecules in the form of ice on moon for the first time.

6. Five years later, in 2014, Irso flew the Mars Orbiter Mission, nicknamed Mangalyaan, to the Mars. On Sept. 24, 2014, vehicle successfully reached Mars, making India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt and just the Fourth entity to place a spacecraft in Martian orbit. The mission was completed at a record-low cost of just 450 crore($74 million) which way less than cost of hollywood movie “The Martian” ($108 million). This is ISRO for you, efficient and economical.

7. On Feb 15, 2017, Isro set up a world record by launching 104 satellites in a single rocket which was PSLV-C37. On June 5, 2017, Isro launched its heaviest beast, GSLV- MARK III and successfully placed a communication satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this endeavour, Isro became a capable of launching 4 ton heavy satellites in GTO.

8. On July 22, 2019, Isro launched second lunar probe Chandrayaan-2. The probe successfully reached in lunar orbit but lander Vikram lost contact as it was just 2.1 KM above the lunar surface. Despite the apparent crash landing of the lander, the whole orbiter is working well and helping scientist to study. The lander part was just 5% of the whole mission.

9. Isro is now gearing up to send humans into space using their own rockets. Isro’s human spaceflight program named as Gaganyaan mission. It would be launched in year 2022, when India will celebrating the 75th year of independence. The proud moment for every Indian on the globe.

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Dussehra (victory of good over evil)



Dussehra Is celebrated to represent victory of good over evil means prabhu Rama over Ravana in famous hindu epic Ramayan. Also it means the end of durga puja & Ramlila. In Ramayan, Ravana kidnaps god Rama’s wife Sita, as god Rama & Laxman cuted of the nose of ravna’s sister surpanakha so to claim vengeance on them Ravana kidnapped sita. To get back maa sita prabhu Rama & Laxman faught battel against Ravana with the help of hanuman, subriv & other vanar sena. In this battel Rawan’s brother Bhibishan also helped him against Ravan . at the end of prabhu Ram wins the battel and rescues sita. Thereafter this victory is celebrated by burning the statue of Ravan, kumbhakarn, his son meghnath. Dasehra is a climax of long day celebration of Navratri.

           The nine days of Navratri is the time to reflect on oneself, observe silence & practice fasting. Fasting cleanses the body of toxins and silence purifies speech & mind. what does dasehra means das means ten and hara means take away. Which came after Navratri means nine nights if darkness.  On each day of Navratri we pray to that form of goddess durga to take away that darkness of ignorance within us and after that on tenth day on the occasion of dasehra we burn all the evil, bad things, thoughts, bad habbits inside us in that fire in the form of Ravna as evil inside us.

Ravan is not the demon or evil outside you it is inside you. In the battel of Ram and Ravana, god ram had been invoked durga to help him win the battel against Ravan, And he won. We also should invoked god durga to help us in gaining back our sita. Now what is sita?  It is awareness inside is which has been traped in maya surround us. To make our soul clean and pure we have to burn the evil in the fire by wining the battel against it which lies inside us that’s what dasehra symbolize.

It is a supreme festival of Hindu culture with true meaning. It also symbolize the feminism as the battel is to gain maa Sita again back as Ravan has kidnaped her. whenever  man crosses his limit and try to hurt marayda of stree. She will become god durga and make him to death. When the Rama wins then there is only light. So choice is ours. Either we become Ravana & get entrapped in the worldly pleasure or become Rama (A spiritual being)

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Know what you have celebrated these 9 days!



The Celebration of Good over Evil

Navaratri is the opportunity for removal of vanity and evil influences and learning to achieve the ultimate truth and meaning of life through spiritual means.

Navaratri (Nava-nine; Ratri-nights) is usually celebrated, as its name suggests, within a span of 9 nights and 10 days. It falls on the Ashvin month according to the Hindu calendar. It celebrates the victory of good over evil; the defeat of negative energies by the righteous or morally upright. The rituals performed during Navaratri is dedicated to Devi Ma, the divine feminine. Each night is dedicated to the worship of nine personalities (Navadurga) and express gratitude to the Mother Divine. Devi is considered as the omnipresent cosmic energy. Devotees often fast, meditate, pray and perform certain rituals.

The rituals are followed by external festivities such as cultural functions and fairs. Cultural functions include Garba/ Dandiya nights and other social functions whereas rituals include Ghatasthapana and other spiritual activities. Women gather up in various societies and perform their rituals together.

But things have changed amidst this Pandemic. People are avoiding social gatherings. They are visiting temples with their masks on and abiding by the guidelines of the Government by following the social distancing norms. Most of the relatives are greeting each other via online platforms and celebrating this auspicious occasion by face-timing each other.

According to sources, many cities (like Indore, Raipur, etc.) have cancelled Garba nights, thus, leaving the hearts of many youngsters broken. Each State Government has taken precautions not to let more than 100 people assemble anywhere.

Jagaran reports that Prayagraj is celebrating Shardiya Navaratra in a unique manner. Famous singers across the city are preparing for devotional songs and performing them via online platforms so that people can get access to the divine celebration by staying at home as well.

Navaratri’s focus is to show reverence to the creation which is a gift of Devi Ma and it is rightly done if we start respecting our Mother Earth in the right terms.

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Why do we have blood types?



Blood is bodily fluid that circulates through body and deliver essential nutrients and oxygen to every cell of our body.

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A greek doctor from 200 BC believed that blood was created from food and liver, this thought lived nearly 1500 years. It was early 17th century when a British ‘Dr. William Harvey’ discovered that blood circulated circulated through body. This experiment spawned the age of blood transfusion. In 1665 an english physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing blood of another dog into his body. Later after two years doctors experimented transfusing animals blood into human body in which the human patient died due to blood clotting.

It wasn’t until 1900s when ‘Dr. Karl Landsteiner’ understood that animals even humans have different blood. He later researched on blood and developed a system to categorize blood type known as A-B-O blood group system. Dr. Landsteiner traced transfusion complication like death and blood clot is caused by two things Antigens and Antibodies. Antigen is anything that triggers our immune system to respond. Usually viruses and Bacteria fall in this category, usually our immune system recognize these invaders and deploy antibodies to destroy them. Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that can recognize, investigate and if needed can destroy Antigens.But our own body also produce some Antigens called Self-Antigens which our immune system leave them alone. The whole A-B-O group system  is based upon these sugar based Self-Antigens and corresponding protein based antibodies. 

Depending upon the presence and absence of these Antigens and Antibodies our blood is divided into four types. Type A blood has A-antigen on blood and B-antibody in plasma. Type B blood has B-antigen on blood and A-antibody in plasma. Type AB has both A-antigen and B-antigen with no Antibodies in plasma. Type O has both A-antibody and B-antibody with no Antigens on blood. 

The positives and the negatives after our blood type is given by detecting the presence or absence of Rh protein based Antigen. Presence of Rh protein gives positive sign after blood type while absence gives negative sign after blood type. 

Blood is foremost the most important fluid in our body. By understanding our blood we can ensure tranfusing right blood type to the needy ones.

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from archieve