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Where Are Stars Made? NASA’s Spitzer Spies a Hot Spot in Milky Way

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NASA’s just lately retired Spitzer Space Telescope has given us the most recent take a look at the nebula and what it seems like.

The most massive stars in the universe are born inside cosmic clouds of gas and dust, where they leave behind clues about their lives for astronomers to decode.
Ever since we began studying concerning the universe and the interstellar house, we now have heard about stars. But there have been questions on how these stars are born and the way their native place seems like. Well, it was first found in 1958 by radio telescopes that’s a nebula often known as W51 is among the most energetic star-making areas in our Milky Way galaxy it makes a rich cosmic tapestry in this image from NASA’s recently retired Spitzer Space Telescope.


Located about 17,000 light-years from Earth, in the direction of the constellation Aquila in the night sky, W51 is about 350 light-years – or about 2 quadrillion miles – across. It is almost invisible to telescopes that collect visible light (the kind human eyes detect), because that light is blocked by interstellar dust clouds that lie between W51 and Earth. But longer wavelengths of light, including radio and infrared, can pass unencumbered through the dust. When viewed in infrared by Spitzer, W51 is a spectacular sight: Its total infrared emission is the equivalent of 20 million Suns. However, it isn’t straightforward to identify the nebula in the evening sky with telescopes that accumulate seen gentle. This is as a result of the sunshine between W51 and Earth will get blocked because of the presence of mud clouds fashioned in the galaxy. Using radio, infrared or longer wavelengths of sunshine can assist us discover the nebula. This is how the infrared wavelength of NASA’s Spitzer telescope helped in capturing the sight of W51.

If you could see it with your naked eye, this dense cloud of gas and dust would appear about as large as the full Moon. The Orion Nebula – another well-known star-forming region and a favourite observing target for amateur astronomers – occupies about the same size area in the sky. But W51 is actually much farther from Earth than Orion and thus much larger, and it’s about 75 times more luminous. While Orion contains four known O-type stars – the most massive stars in the universe – W51 contains over 30.


“Star factories” like this one can operate for millions of years. The cavernous red region on the right side of W51 is older, evident in the way it has already been carved out by winds from generations of massive stars (those at least 10 times the mass of our Sun). The dust and gas in the region are swept around even more when those stars die and explode as supernovas. On the nebula’s younger left side, many stars are just beginning to clear away the gas and dust in the same way the stars in the older region have done. It’s apparent that many of these young stars are in the process of forming bubbles of empty space around themselves.


This image was taken as part of a major observation campaign by Spitzer in 2004 to map the large-scale structure of the Milky Way galaxy – a considerable challenge because Earth lies inside it. Called the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), the survey also turned up valuable data on many wonders within the Milky Way, including images of multiple stellar factories like W51 that were hidden by dust from visible-light observatories.


“The really spectacular images provided by Spitzer via the GLIMPSE survey ¬– in concert with data from many other, complementary telescopes – give us insight into how massive stars form in our Milky Way, and then how their powerful winds and radiation interact with the remaining ambient material,” said Breanna Binder, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, who studies the life cycles of massive stars. “We can’t observe star-forming regions in other galaxies in anywhere near the level of detail that we can in our own galaxy. So regions like W51 are really important for advancing our understanding of star formation in the Milky Way, which we can then extrapolate to how star formation proceeds in other, nearby galaxies.”


NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope launched 17 years ago this week, on Aug. 25, 2003. The spacecraft was retired on Jan. 30, 2020. Though the mission has concluded, the entire body of scientific data collected by Spitzer during its lifetime is available to the public via the Spitzer data archive, housed at the Infrared Science Archive at IPAC in Pasadena, California.


NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech, managed Spitzer mission operations for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Science operations were conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at IPAC at Caltech. Spacecraft operations were based at Lockheed Martin Space in Littleton, Colorado.

By ANUSHKA SHARAD

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Dussehra (victory of good over evil)

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Dussehra Is celebrated to represent victory of good over evil means prabhu Rama over Ravana in famous hindu epic Ramayan. Also it means the end of durga puja & Ramlila. In Ramayan, Ravana kidnaps god Rama’s wife Sita, as god Rama & Laxman cuted of the nose of ravna’s sister surpanakha so to claim vengeance on them Ravana kidnapped sita. To get back maa sita prabhu Rama & Laxman faught battel against Ravana with the help of hanuman, subriv & other vanar sena. In this battel Rawan’s brother Bhibishan also helped him against Ravan . at the end of prabhu Ram wins the battel and rescues sita. Thereafter this victory is celebrated by burning the statue of Ravan, kumbhakarn, his son meghnath. Dasehra is a climax of long day celebration of Navratri.

           The nine days of Navratri is the time to reflect on oneself, observe silence & practice fasting. Fasting cleanses the body of toxins and silence purifies speech & mind. what does dasehra means das means ten and hara means take away. Which came after Navratri means nine nights if darkness.  On each day of Navratri we pray to that form of goddess durga to take away that darkness of ignorance within us and after that on tenth day on the occasion of dasehra we burn all the evil, bad things, thoughts, bad habbits inside us in that fire in the form of Ravna as evil inside us.

Ravan is not the demon or evil outside you it is inside you. In the battel of Ram and Ravana, god ram had been invoked durga to help him win the battel against Ravan, And he won. We also should invoked god durga to help us in gaining back our sita. Now what is sita?  It is awareness inside is which has been traped in maya surround us. To make our soul clean and pure we have to burn the evil in the fire by wining the battel against it which lies inside us that’s what dasehra symbolize.

It is a supreme festival of Hindu culture with true meaning. It also symbolize the feminism as the battel is to gain maa Sita again back as Ravan has kidnaped her. whenever  man crosses his limit and try to hurt marayda of stree. She will become god durga and make him to death. When the Rama wins then there is only light. So choice is ours. Either we become Ravana & get entrapped in the worldly pleasure or become Rama (A spiritual being)

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Know what you have celebrated these 9 days!

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The Celebration of Good over Evil

Navaratri is the opportunity for removal of vanity and evil influences and learning to achieve the ultimate truth and meaning of life through spiritual means.

Navaratri (Nava-nine; Ratri-nights) is usually celebrated, as its name suggests, within a span of 9 nights and 10 days. It falls on the Ashvin month according to the Hindu calendar. It celebrates the victory of good over evil; the defeat of negative energies by the righteous or morally upright. The rituals performed during Navaratri is dedicated to Devi Ma, the divine feminine. Each night is dedicated to the worship of nine personalities (Navadurga) and express gratitude to the Mother Divine. Devi is considered as the omnipresent cosmic energy. Devotees often fast, meditate, pray and perform certain rituals.

The rituals are followed by external festivities such as cultural functions and fairs. Cultural functions include Garba/ Dandiya nights and other social functions whereas rituals include Ghatasthapana and other spiritual activities. Women gather up in various societies and perform their rituals together.

But things have changed amidst this Pandemic. People are avoiding social gatherings. They are visiting temples with their masks on and abiding by the guidelines of the Government by following the social distancing norms. Most of the relatives are greeting each other via online platforms and celebrating this auspicious occasion by face-timing each other.

According to sources, many cities (like Indore, Raipur, etc.) have cancelled Garba nights, thus, leaving the hearts of many youngsters broken. Each State Government has taken precautions not to let more than 100 people assemble anywhere.

Jagaran reports that Prayagraj is celebrating Shardiya Navaratra in a unique manner. Famous singers across the city are preparing for devotional songs and performing them via online platforms so that people can get access to the divine celebration by staying at home as well.

Navaratri’s focus is to show reverence to the creation which is a gift of Devi Ma and it is rightly done if we start respecting our Mother Earth in the right terms.

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Why do we have blood types?

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Blood is bodily fluid that circulates through body and deliver essential nutrients and oxygen to every cell of our body.

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A greek doctor from 200 BC believed that blood was created from food and liver, this thought lived nearly 1500 years. It was early 17th century when a British ‘Dr. William Harvey’ discovered that blood circulated circulated through body. This experiment spawned the age of blood transfusion. In 1665 an english physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing blood of another dog into his body. Later after two years doctors experimented transfusing animals blood into human body in which the human patient died due to blood clotting.

It wasn’t until 1900s when ‘Dr. Karl Landsteiner’ understood that animals even humans have different blood. He later researched on blood and developed a system to categorize blood type known as A-B-O blood group system. Dr. Landsteiner traced transfusion complication like death and blood clot is caused by two things Antigens and Antibodies. Antigen is anything that triggers our immune system to respond. Usually viruses and Bacteria fall in this category, usually our immune system recognize these invaders and deploy antibodies to destroy them. Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that can recognize, investigate and if needed can destroy Antigens.But our own body also produce some Antigens called Self-Antigens which our immune system leave them alone. The whole A-B-O group system  is based upon these sugar based Self-Antigens and corresponding protein based antibodies. 

Depending upon the presence and absence of these Antigens and Antibodies our blood is divided into four types. Type A blood has A-antigen on blood and B-antibody in plasma. Type B blood has B-antigen on blood and A-antibody in plasma. Type AB has both A-antigen and B-antigen with no Antibodies in plasma. Type O has both A-antibody and B-antibody with no Antigens on blood. 

The positives and the negatives after our blood type is given by detecting the presence or absence of Rh protein based Antigen. Presence of Rh protein gives positive sign after blood type while absence gives negative sign after blood type. 

Blood is foremost the most important fluid in our body. By understanding our blood we can ensure tranfusing right blood type to the needy ones.

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