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Why do we have blood types?



Blood is bodily fluid that circulates through body and deliver essential nutrients and oxygen to every cell of our body.

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A greek doctor from 200 BC believed that blood was created from food and liver, this thought lived nearly 1500 years. It was early 17th century when a British ‘Dr. William Harvey’ discovered that blood circulated circulated through body. This experiment spawned the age of blood transfusion. In 1665 an english physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing blood of another dog into his body. Later after two years doctors experimented transfusing animals blood into human body in which the human patient died due to blood clotting.

It wasn’t until 1900s when ‘Dr. Karl Landsteiner’ understood that animals even humans have different blood. He later researched on blood and developed a system to categorize blood type known as A-B-O blood group system. Dr. Landsteiner traced transfusion complication like death and blood clot is caused by two things Antigens and Antibodies. Antigen is anything that triggers our immune system to respond. Usually viruses and Bacteria fall in this category, usually our immune system recognize these invaders and deploy antibodies to destroy them. Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that can recognize, investigate and if needed can destroy Antigens.But our own body also produce some Antigens called Self-Antigens which our immune system leave them alone. The whole A-B-O group system  is based upon these sugar based Self-Antigens and corresponding protein based antibodies. 

Depending upon the presence and absence of these Antigens and Antibodies our blood is divided into four types. Type A blood has A-antigen on blood and B-antibody in plasma. Type B blood has B-antigen on blood and A-antibody in plasma. Type AB has both A-antigen and B-antigen with no Antibodies in plasma. Type O has both A-antibody and B-antibody with no Antigens on blood. 

The positives and the negatives after our blood type is given by detecting the presence or absence of Rh protein based Antigen. Presence of Rh protein gives positive sign after blood type while absence gives negative sign after blood type. 

Blood is foremost the most important fluid in our body. By understanding our blood we can ensure tranfusing right blood type to the needy ones.

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Why K-Pop is becoming so popular?



K-Pop means Korean-Pop (Here I’m not talking about the dictator’s North Korea; I’m talking about South Korea!) It is a genre of music which is now popular among the youths and also it is becoming a global phenomenon on. So, now scroll and you’ll get to know more about K-Pop.

K-Pop is much different than other industries, there’s no nepotism in it. South Korean Music Production selects the pure talent and trains them. They make the things which are mostly liked by today’s youths. There lyrics aren’t ‘cringe’ like most of the Bollywood songs. They don’t just sing about cars, Gucci gangs, girls, wealth, drugs, etc; they sing about life and things that are relatable to the current situation.
Here’s one song’s lyrics which matches the current situation
Life goes on by BTS-

K-Pop stars (also called as idols) just don’t have looks, they have ‘talent’ and people are easily attracted to talent because, they want to see such more specific talent. But wait, K-Pop is not just this; it is lot more than this.

K-Pop stars have style and fashion which is much different than others and attract more people.

Image source: Pinterest

Now before you say “Oh! Many of them look like girls”, please stop! That’s part of Korean culture. Most of the Korean people like the innocent and feminine look and it is not unusual for guys to wear makeup in South Korea.

Image source: Google

Dancing is one of the biggest components of K-Pop, almost all K-Pop stars dance unless it’s solo artist. Of course it adds to the talent factor because not everyone is able to do this:

Song ‘Dope’ by ‘BTS’
Song ‘Black on Black’ by ‘NCT’

I understand that you may not like some of the music, but there’s almost every genre in K-Pop.

Pop – ‘Playing with fire’ by ‘BlackPink’

Electronic – ‘DNA’ by ‘BTS’

Image source: Pinterest

Rap- ‘Chain’ by ‘NCT’

Image source: Pinterest

Rock- ‘Baby’ by ‘The Rose’

Image source: Google

Latin- ‘Airplane part’ 2 by ‘BTS’

Image source: Pinterest

Vibey- ‘Baby don’t stop’ by ‘NCT U’

Image source: Google

Classical- ‘Lie’ by ‘Jimin’

Image source: Pinterest

Therefore, there’s something for you in K-Pop that you would like.

All the music are extremely catchy and they always have a good beat. This is what attracts most K-Pop fans. You may tell now that “Why listen to music you can’t understand”. Then explain Despacito! After Justin Bieber sang it, it became more popular not for the lyrics but because it was catchy. Overall, No one is asking you to have same opinion like all the K-Pop fans, they are just asking you to understand it!

But after finding out what the idols are saying, most of the K-Pop lyrics tend to be pretty deep. Looking up the lyrics and after realizing the beautiful message they were singing about, it makes the song 10x better and more meaningful than before.
Song Blue and Grey from BE album by BTS-

You may feel much comforted and motivated after listening these songs with lyrics. ‘K-Pop is more about the music, the message and inspiration they send.’

All in all, K-Pop is just simply a genre of music that is more than just music. There lyrics, love towards their fans, music, looks, style, choreography and great MVs(Music videos) combine together makes K-Pop masterpiece’

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Who is Disha Ravi?




Disha Ravi is a 22 year old climate activist. She was recently arrested by the Cyber Cell team of Delhi Police from Bengaluru for allegedly sharing with Greta Thunberg the toolkit related to the farmer’s protest against the Centre’s three farm laws. Disha Ravi is a graduate in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) from Mount Carmel College in Bengaluru . On her social media handles, she described herself as the co-founder of a group named Fridays For Future India.

On Sunday, February 14, 2021, the activist was picked up from her house for questioning and was arrested later . A senior police officer said that this was the first arrest in connection with the ‘toolkit case’. And here the ‘Toolkit’ is a term activists use for a campaign information document . The Delhi Police took it to Twitter and stated that Ravi was the one who shared the toolkit document with Greta Thunberg, a teen climate activist, who had shared the toolkit to lend her support to the farmers’ agitation against three farm reform laws.
Disha Ravi , as claimed by the police force was an editor of the ‘Toolkit Google Doc’ and ‘Key Conspirator’ in the document’s formulation and dissemination. The police also said that Ravi and others collaborated with pro-khalistani Poetic Justice Foundation to spread disaffection against the Indian State. In an interview with Auto Report Africa in 2020, Ravi spoke about how she found her passion for the climate activism and said,“My motivation to join climate activism came from seeing my grandparents, who were farmers, have struggled with the effects of the climate crisis.” Disha’s role came under a suspicion by Delhi Police after climate activist, Greta Thunberg tweeted a toolkit document which the police alleged led to the January 26 violence in New Delhi. Without naming Thunberg in the FIR, the Delhi Police went ahead to register the case against the authors of the toolkit.

“At the time, I wasn’t aware that what they were experiencing was the climate crisis because climate education is non-existent where I am from. Only when I did my research, I find out about it,” she said.
Swedish teen climate activist, Greta Thunberg has extended her support to Disha Ravi, the 22 year old environmental activist, who has been charged with sedition for allegedly editing an advocacy toolkit on the farmers’ protest and sharing it with Ms. Thunberg. The Swedish activist’s earlier tweets, first sharing and then deleting the toolkit, had brought the advocacy document to the public attention.
On Friday, Ms.Thunberg’s statement of support was posted as part of a tweet thread by Fridays For Future ( FFF ) India, the environmental group that Ms. Ravi was aligned with.

Around 50retired judges, top police officers and bureaucrats have sent a memorandum to President Ram Nath Kovind,denouncing attempts of individuals and organisations to set a narrative against national interest in the Disha Ravi case. These eminent citizens are of the view that it’s the onerous duty of every citizen to unite against forces of disruption in the country and support government action to protect sovereignty and integrity of India. Therefore, these citizens have written in memorandum that it is sickening to note that a few Indian citizens have actively engaged with banned elements/organisations who coordinated and perfected a plan to organise protests in front of all Indian embassies, high commissions and consul-general offices in leading cities in the USA, Canada, United Kingdom and Europe to defame the Government of India by spreading a false propaganda.

They also appeald to the central government to ensure that Delhi Police is able to do its investigation in a free and fair manner without any undue pressure from the vested interests, and, to bring to book all those rogue elements who have allowed themselves to be used by secessionist forces in India and abroad, trying to spread anarchy and provide intellectual cover to antinational forces to serve their own selfish ends. In a significant observation, it added that citizens were conscience keeper of the government in any democratic nation and cannot be put behind bars simply because they choose to disagreed with the state’s policies. In an 18 page bail order, additional sessions judge Dharmender Rana said: “The offence of sedition cannot be invoked to minister to the wounded vanity of governments. Difference of opinion, disagreement, divergence, dissent, or for that matter, even disapprobation, are recognised legitimate tools to infuse objectivity in state policies. An aware and assertive citizenry, in contradistinction with an indifferent or docile citizenry, is indisputably a sign of a healthy and vibrant democracy.

  • Sahaj Sabharwal
    ( Bestselling author of Book-: Poems by Sahaj Sabharwal )
    Jammu city, J&K, India
    Contact-: +917780977469
    Email-: [email protected]




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Ever-widening mystery of the Parallel Universe.



One of the biggest mysteries in the range of the scientific world is the Multiverse theory. The idea of the existence of multiple realities has widely taken the minds of scientists. All that our telescope could see so far is the tiny fragment of the unimaginable large ocean of universes.

The theory of Multiple or Parallel Universes blurs the line between scientific reality and science fiction. Nobody knows for sure whether all these exist! Hence, that is why it is a Theory.

The matter of beliefs having another world similar to ours always puts us at the age of the seat. Today, this article will help you to dig deeper into the climax of this ever-widening mystery of the Parallel Universe.

Around 13.7 billion years ago, it is believed that everything started with some unknown trigger that caused the expansion and inflation of space that is our Big Bang theory. As the immense energy of this initial expansion cooled, the light began to shine through. Eventually, the small particles began to form into the larger pieces of matter we know today, such as galaxies, stars, and planets.

The word ‘Universes’ sounds out of one’s mind although it’s silliness to deny the term. A multiverse is a hypothetical group of multiple universes together these universes comprise everything that exists the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, information, and the physical laws and constants that describes them.

The different universes within the multiverse are called parallel universes, alternate universes, or many worlds. Perhaps there are other Universes, even with different versions of different histories, alternate outcomes, than our own and us. When it comes to physics, this is one of the most exciting possibilities of all, but it’s far from a certainty.

Parallel Universe, solely isn’t the whole thing! There are more probabilities of the existence of Multiverses and Mirror verses or Parallel universes.

Hugh Everett, a physicist believed that the Universe is constantly splitting and each of its splits became its Universe. This is now known as the Multiple World theory. In the Multiple World theory, there are versions of you living in that life right now. All of that originated from you but it’s not you any more yet the identical versions of yourself.

There are many theories proposed by scientists that suggest the possibility of a parallel universe. Some of them are below:

Bubble Universe Theory

Bubble Universe states that Universes are like bubbles much unseen by each other because we don’t have such technology. Every bubble has slightly different laws of physics and then we could only exist in one that had the right physical laws to allow us to exist.

String theory

Some dimensions that extend an object into one or more spatial dimensions are called branes.

A 0-brane is a zero-dimensional object, a point.
A 1-brane is a one-dimensional object, a string.
A 2-brane is a two-dimensional object, a membrane.
And a P-brane is a p-dimensional object.

Because some versions of string theory have 9 spatial dimensions, p-branes may exist for values of p up to 9.

It suggests that what we think of as our Universe is only the 3-dimensional surface embedded with a larger super-universe with nine spatial dimensions. To understand this better assume each page of a newspaper as its two-dimensional surface embedded within our three-dimensional world.

Quantum Mechanics.

Another theory is of quantum mechanics but the collapse of the wavefunction isn’t understood yet. It has two sets of the rule when you’re not looking at the wave function it simply evolves but when you are looking at it and make a measurement or if the wavefunction interacts with the external environment it collapses.

The continuous space-time requires a continuous solution hence, the wave function has to be continuous to reach the criteria of state of a particle. Schrodinger’s equation explains that all.

Even before the String theory, the idea existed that the geometry of the universe would allow us for travelling through two distinct points through a smaller path. In science, we can call it Wormholes. The concept of wormhole arises from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Wormhole theory supposes that a theoretical passage through space-time could create shortcuts for long journeys across the Universe.

It is believed that we are connected to another brane, a brane of 4 dimensions. If the two branes overlap (brane of 3rd dimension and a brane of 4th dimension), it is conceivable that there would be a way to travel from one brane to another brane. It’s seemingly impossible to do this so wormhole plays the role here making it appear possible to connect to another Universe.

For the formation of Parallel universes, there are innumerable possibilities of the arrangement of the configuration of particles. The arrangement of particles in the cosmic patches may either repeat or differ. This brings us to the conclusion that there are infinite “parallel universes.” The copies might be exactly like us or might differ by one or more particle’s position.

For long, it’s also considered by some, the idea that information enters a black hole exits into a parallel universe employing a wormhole at the center of the black hole. Such ideas are highly speculative and deterministic by Science. If a wormhole were held open with negative energy, it would provide a means of connecting different Universes in Space.

All that we are talking about is theoretical physics and hence multiple universes really could exist. Physics is more scientific and not philosophical. Nevertheless, science is close to taking the abstract and making it physical.

Every possible alternate timeline for the universe is real and they all happen in an ever-large and ever-branching way. It’s like an individual chooses its adventure where every possible story happens although we won’t realize that because we’d be stuck living out just once. We call these Daughter universes.

Similar to what Multiple World’s Theory states.

Imagine yourself in the parallel version of you that went into the other fields rather than what you are doing today. Mirrored copies of subatomic particles could be made so other copies of us could exist in a parallel universe. Imagine every decision you’ve ever made created a new thread in time!

We might take the possibility as a true happening in this case as in an infinite universe and infinite time everything is bound to happen somewhere. Besides, where parallel universes exist, travel between them is undertaken.

However, no above-mentioned theories have any experimental support yet.

Source of the images- Google


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